physio final part 2

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  1. GHRH from hypothalamus stimulates
    GH: Growth Hormone
  2. GH: Growth Hormone stimulates
  3. Cortisol: stress hormone
    Metabolizes energy and suppresses immune response.
  4. ADH
    vasopressin & water balance
  5. Oxytocin
    milk ejection
  6. Hypo tropic hormones: PRH, PIH (dopamine) trigger...
    Prolactin in the ant. Pit. To breasts to trigger milk let down and uterine contraction
  7. Hypo tropic hormone TRH triggers ant.pit. to release
    TSH and goes to the thyroid and triggers TH
  8. Hypo tropic CRH triggers Ant. Pit. to release
    ACTH with goes to the adrenal cortex and releases cortisol
  9. Hypo tropic hormone: GHRH and GHIH (somatostain) trigger ant. Pit. To release
    GH which goes to the liver and cells in the body.  The liver triggers Insulin like Growth factors
  10. Hypo tropic hormone: GRnH triggers LH and FSH released from the anti pit and goes to
    gonands. In males it releases androgens. In females it releases estrogen and progesterone
  11. Cell types in the testes
    smooth muscle: peristalsis—propel sperm blood testis barrier: tight junctions, luminal compartment, basal compartment.
  12. Cell types in the Leydig
    interstitial cells: secrete testosterone
  13. Cell types in the sertoli
    Epithelial cells: support sperm development
  14. Cell types in the sperm
    • o   Head: chromosomes, acrosomes (enzymes necessary for fertilization)
    • o   Midpeice: mitochondria
    • o   Tail: whip like propel sperm
  15. Basics of spermatogenesis
    • o   Spermatogonia divide by mitosis to create 1 daughter cell and 1 Primary spermatocyte.
    • o   The Primary Spermatocyte divides by meiosis to form 2 secondary Spermatocytes o   Secondary spermatocytes divide again to form 2 (each) spermatids
    • o   The spermatids then differentiate into sperm cells
  16. Role of FSH and LH in the male
    • o   FSH: stimulates gametogenesis
    • o   LH: stimulates androgen (testosterone) secretion
  17. Role of FSH and LH in the female
    FSH: Secreted from the Ant. Pit. FSH and estrogens stimulate follicle growth and development
  18. Role of Estrogen and Progesterone in the female
    • Estrogen: Inhibit LH & FSH secretion
    • Follicular phase:
    • ·Promotes endometrial growth
    • ·Permute oogenesis and follicle development
    • ·Increased LH receptors in granulosa cells
    • ·Increased progesterone receptors in uterus ·Increased LH Secretion (late in follicular phase only)
  19. role of estrogen in Pregnancy and Luteal phase
    • ·Promotes growth of duct tissue and deposition of fat in breasts
    • ·Suppress lactation
    • ·Increased prolactin secretion
    • ·Increased growth and contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle
    • ·Increase oxytocin receptors in uterus
    • ·Premote fluid retention
  20. What are the phases of the menstrual
    • Menstruation: bleeding due to the shedding of the endometrium 1-5 days
    • Proliferative Phase
    • secretory phase
    • leutal phase
  21. Follicular Phase: when the follicles develop
    • ~includes menstrual phase (1-5 days) and Proliferative phase (17 days)
    • ~Proliferative Phase: endometrial lining develops, grows, glands enlarge, smooth muscle layer thickens and the cervical glands secrete mucus. All stimulated by estrogen.
    • ~Secretory phase: endometrium prepared for implantation, blood supply increases, glands enlarge and secrete glycogen-rich fluids, and cervical secretions more sticky to form a plug.
  22. Leutal phase
  23. o   during which the corpus luteum forms and secretes estrogen and progesterone. Corpus Luteum reaches a max activity of 10 days then degenerates.  The degeneration decreases estrogen and progesterone and results in menstruation or if no degeneration = pregnancy. This is day 15-28
  24. Estrogen is secreted from the
    follicle then from the Corpus Leteum
  25. Progesterone is secreted from
    Corpus Leteum
  26. LH & FSH are secreted from
    the Ant. Pit
  27. Estrogen & progesterone inhibits
    LH & FSH secretion
  28. The menstrual cycle lasts about 28 days
  29. The menstrual cycle is started with the beginning of
  30. FSH and LH both released from the antipituitary stimulated a follicle in the ovary causing it to develop so that the ovum matures.  This also causes the ovary to release estrogen
  31. The combination of FSH, LH and Estrogen has a positive feedback in the hypothalamus causing more of all 3 to be released
  32. Estrogen causes the muscle and lining layers of the uterus to grown thicker in prep for possible embryo
  33. The LH Surge on or about the 14th day causes ovulation ton.  The ovum enters the oviduct and travels towards the uterus. And it may meet up with sperm.
  34. The remaining section of the follicle develops into the corpus luteum which secretes the hormone progesterone for several days.
  35. Progesterone has the effect of maintaining the lining of the uterus by developing more blood vessels that create the change in the uterus for egg implantation.
  36. If an egg implants it releases HCG
  37. If not it combination of estrogen and progesterone has a negative feedback effect on the pituitary, stopping the release of FSH and LH
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physio final part 2
2012-12-11 18:01:31
physio final part jenkins

physio final part 2 jenkins slcc
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