The Tragic Owls Part One
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Although not strong, talented, or liberal, Alexander II carried out the Great Reforms
a. because he was compelled to do so by the logic of the situation in which he took power.
Alexander II selected the following official persona:
c. the Tsar of Love.
Social and economic historians believe that serfdom was a failing institution by mid-19th century because
a. education gave the gentry class a social conscience.
The chronic rebellions, flights, and panics of the enserfed peasants might best be described as
- a. despicable.
- b. pathetic.
One concern holding back the conversion to a more affordable reserve army system was
a. fear of returning trained soldiers to the villages.
At the time of his coronation Alexander II got the full attention of his gentry when he said
b. that it would be better to have abolition of serfdom from above than from below.
Although the Manifesto of 19 February  gave the enserfed peasants liberty, it did not give them
c. equality with the other social classes.
Peasants and their educated sympathizers bitterly resented
b. the redemption payments required to pay off the emancipation costs.
Keeping peasants and their descendants in the commune until its redemption was paid
c. perpetuated the backwardness that was pushing Russia towards disaster.
The zemstvo reform of 1864 proved to be
a. a flawed but nonetheless strong modernization and democratization of local government.
The subsequently numerous and important class of lawyers was born with
b. the zemstvo reform of 1864.
One unintended consequence of admitting scads of raznochintsy into the universities:
b. the creation of a new alienated political class called the intelligentsia.
In the opinion of many historians, Alexander II abandoned liberal reform
a. in 1866, when a student, one Karakazov, shot at him at the gates of the Summer Garden.
The capstone of the Great Reforms was
- a. the emancipation of the state serfs in 1866.
- b. the municipal government reform of 1870.
- c. the reserve army reform of 1874..
Populists [narodniki], in contrast to nihilists, believed in
c. repaying the debt to the peasant [muzhik].
The “going to the people” [v narod] movement terminated in
c. the Trials of the 193 and the 50 in 1877.
During the period when Italians and Germans fought wars with Austria,
a. Russia’s internal reforms prevented her from helping Austria.
The Treaty of San Stefano (1878) represented, for Russia,
c. her successful reappearance on the great power stage.
The 1878 Congress of Berlin represented, for Russia,
a. betrayal at the hands of her new best friend, Germany.
An unintended consequence of the 1878 Congress of Berlin was
c. Berlin was clearly recognized as Europe’s new diplomatic capital.
When the v narod movement failed, to many intelligenty only this alternative remained:
b. the laborious task of building a constitutional constituency.
On the very day when Alexander II assented to Loris-Melikov’s resumption of liberal reforms,
c. Loris-Melikov resigned as Minister of the Interior.
The reign of Alexander II coincided almost exactly with the literary Age of Realism, dominated by
b. the big Russian novel.
The reigns of the last two Russian tsars was a continuum, but they did differ in their
- a. principles.
- b. policies.
- c. personalities.
Alexander III selected as his persona:
- a. the Russkii Tsar.
- b. the Tsar of Love.
- c. Sensitive Man.
The Temporary Regulations enacted in 1881 to combat terrorism
b. would better have been called “permanent partial martial law.”
According to the University Statute of 1884, university students were classified as
b. “individual visitors” to their institutions of higher learning.
The irony of the 1885 establishment of a State Gentry Land Bank to save the spendthrift gentry:
- a. the gentry was doing fine, and hardly needed saving.
- b. the future belonged to the peasants, no matter what the state did.
- c. it came just a century after Catherine’s anachronistic Charter of the Nobility.
This one of Alexander III’s “counterreforms” added a new administrative network:
c. the University Statute.
“Russification” awakened many ethnic populations, but one chose mass emigration to America:
Above all, The Church on the Blood in St. Petersburg
a. testifies to the love people had for Alexander II.
Georgians, Poles and others were persecuted and insulted, but the Jews also suffered
c. pressures to convert to Orthodoxy.
Constantine Pobedonostsev, Dmitrii Tolstoy, and Ivan Delianov were all three
b. powerful agents of cultural reaction.
Nicholas Bunge, Ivan Vyshnegradsky, and Sergei Witte were all three
c. enlightened Finance Ministers.
George Plekhanov, Alexander Ulianov, and Lev Bronstein were all three
a. notorious revolutionary activists.
The bourgeoisie that began to flourish in the 1880s, was primarily
The particular misery of the early industrial revolution
a. spread uniformly across the West-East Cultural Gradient.
The 1891 emblematic project of Russia’s industrial revolution:
b. the Trans-Siberian Railway .
Russian discontent with the 1881-1887 Alliance of the Three Emperors [DKB II] led to
a. initiatives resulting in the secret Dual Entente.
Kaiser Wilhelm II’s dismissal of Bismarck ultimately broke what the latter called:
c. the “bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier.”
The frightful famine of 1891-1892
b. stimulated genuine governmental interest in the common good.
Alexander III’s personal relationship with _____led him to France and the Dual Entente:
b. Otto von Bismarck.
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