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What are the four tissue types?
- Epithelial Tissue
- - Forms coverings protecting the body from the outside world.
- -Remember that the lumen (opening) of the gut tube is "outside".
- Connective Tissue
- -Holds structure of bodyMuscular Tissue
- -Moves body parts
- Nervous Tissue
- -Sensation, information processing, and control of body parts
Epithelium cells have two surfaces:
an apical surface that faces the outside world; and
a basal surface that rests on, and is attached to, the basement membrane.
The basement membrane, in turn, has two thin layers, each called a
The basal lamina is the nearest the epithelial cells
The reticular lamina is a bit deeper.
Features of an Epithelium
One free surface (apical surface)
- One surface attached to basement membrane
- -basal lamina
- -reticular lamina
Epithelia are usually classified by two adjectives follwed by the word "epithelium". The first word describes the ________________. The second one describes the __________________________.
arrangement of cells in the epithelium;
shape of the individual cells at the apical surface of the epithelium.
What are the arrangement of cells?
Simple- the cells are a single layer, and all are in contact with the basement membrane.
Pseudostratified- even though the cells appear to have layers, every one is in contact with the basement membrane.
Stratified- cells have layers, so only the lowest layer is in contact with the basement membrane.
What are the shapes of the cells?
Cuboidal- cells are as wide as they are tall, like little ice cubes.
Columnar- cells, like a column, are taller than they are wide.
Transitional epithelia contain
cells that change shape, depending on whether the organ is enlarged or shrunken.
Naming Epithelia:Arrangement + Shape
Three arrangements x three shapes = nine combinations.
Two of these not used, but add transitional: cells that change shape = eight combinations.
If different shapes present, always by shape of cells in apical (outermost) layer.
Graphic Objective 3. Describe naming conventions for the cell shape and layering of epithelia tissue.
Endocrin glands secrete
substances into extracellular fluid, then blood
Exocrine glands secrete
substances outside of body.
Both endocrine and exocrine glands generally line with (simple or stratified) cuboidal epithelium
Glandular epithelium is responsible for _________, the production of substances that are released outside the body (______ _______) or within the body (________ ______)
secretion; exocrine glands; endocrine glands
Sweat is released outside the body by ________ ______. Hormones are released by _______ ______.
exocrine glands; endocrine glands
Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands:Based on how the cell secretes its product to the outside environment, what are they?
packaged into vesicles that can then fuse with the cell membrane on demand to release the cell's secretory product. Saliva and pancreatic enzymes are secreted in this way.
vesicles gather together in a little cell life raft which is then jettisoned and broken open, releasing the vesicle produce. The male prostate and female mammary glands secrete their products in this way
is the most violent and destructive form of secretion. The secretory product is made in the cytoplasm of the cell, and then the cell blows itself to bits, releasing the secretory product. Not surprisingly, the sebaceous glands of the skin, which are over-active in teenagers, use this mode of secretion
Graphic objective 14. Define merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine secretion, and give examples of each. p.331
The ground substance is composed of several proteins:
The cells of the connective tissue secrete a ______ ________ (____________ ______) which can vary from liquid, as in blood, all the way to rock-hard, as in bone.
ground substance; (extracellular matrix)
Proteins of the Ground Substance:
-Connective tissue ground substance is also called extracellular matrix
- -Several important proteins found here
- -a class of proteins that contain lost of sugar
- -for example, mucus is mostly proteoglycan
- -Integrin links these to cell surface
- -Collagen fibers link these to connective tissue
Collagen fibers are made up of
collagen. Collagen comes in several different types (called type I collagen, type II collagen, etc. up to type XXIX collagen). Collagen is a triple helix. This structure gives it strength along the fiber.
Elastic fibers are made of
elastin and are abundant in tissues that need to stretch and then snap back into their previous shape, like blood vessels.
Reticular fibers are made of
type III collagen. Structures that stain with silver are called argyrophilic.
Body fat is produced by adipocytes and is
used for insulation, energy storage, and to enrich diet companies.
Name the Connective Tissue Cells
Fibroblasts - Most numerous connective tissue cells; Secrete fibrous components and ground substance.
Adipocytes - Fats cells; Store triglycerides.
Mast Cells - Near blood vessels; Important for inflammation; produce histamine.
White Blood Cells - Migrate to sites of damage (neutrophils, eosinophils)
Macrophages - "Big eaters": swallow and destroy invaders or debris; Fixed or wandering.
Plasma Cells - Formed from white blood cells (B lymphocytes); Secrete special proteins called antibodies that help attack invaders.
What cells fit into the category of defensive cells
Mast cells, white blood cells, macrophages, plasma cells
Defensive Cells are
cells that defent the body against invaders. They patrol the connective tissues and attack any enemies the find there.