Bio review

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Bio review
2012-12-12 23:06:49
Bio review

Bio review
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  1. How the nervous system and endocrine system are semilar?
    • Relates in 3 main ares: sturcture, chemical and function
    • It work parellel together to maintain homeostasis, development and reproduction.
    • With used of Epinephrine and fight to flight response
    • Negative feed back - homeostasis
  2. Function of Endocrine System
    • Controls Homeostasis
    • Maintains water balance
    • Contols urine contaction
    • Controls Milk production
    • Regulates metabolism and growth
    • Regulates heart rate and blood pressure
    • Monitors blood glucose levels
    • Aids the immune system
    • Reproductive function
  3. What are the 2 types of glands?
    • Endocrine - hormones secrete into the blood stream
    • Exocrine - Hormone secreted from the blood stream or secretes chemicals using ducts
  4. What type of epithelial tissue are glands made from
    Cubodial cells
  5. Where do endocrine glnads secrete thier products?
    Into the blood stream
  6. Endocrine Glands
    Secrete their product into blood stream

  7. Chemical Signals
    Molecules that are released form one location, move to another location, produced a respnse

  8. Chemical Signals: Explain the deifference between Intracellular and Intercellular signals
    • Intracellular - produce in one part of the cell to another part of the same cell
    • Intercellular - release from one cell and binds to another
  9. Chemical Signals: Intracellular
    Produce in one of part a cell and move to another part of same cell

    • -**Same as Autocrine
  10. Chemical Signals: Intercellular
    Release from one cell and bind to receptors on other cells

    • -***Same as Paracrine
  11. Types of Chemical Signals
    • Autocrine
    • Paracrine
    • Hormone
    • Neurohormone
    • Neutrotransmitter/neuromodelator
    • Phermone
  12. Types of Chemical Signals: Autocrine
    Release by cells and have local effects on same cell type

  13. Types of Chemical Signals: Paracrine
    Release by cells that affect the other cell types in close proximity

  14. Types of Chemical Signals: Hormone
    Produce by specialized cell and Secreted into the blood and bind to receptor

  15. Types of Chemical Signals: Neurohormone
    Produced by neurons and secreted into the blood and binds to reptors

  16. Types of Chemical Signals: Neurotransmitted  or Neuromodulators
    Secrete by nerve cells

  17. Types of Chemical Signals: Phermones
    Secreted into env't and modify behavior and physiology of other individual in same species

  18. List the 4 importanct characteristics that characterizes a hormone
    • produce in minute amounts by collection of cells
    • secrete into the interstitial fluid
    • enters in the circulatory system to be transported some distance
    • influence specific tissues at another site in the body to act in a specific way.
  19. Components of Hormones
    • Receptor site
    • Target Tissues
    • Specificity
  20. Components of Hormones: Receptor Site
    Location on a cell where hormone binds (lock)
  21. Components of Hormones: Target tissues
    Group of cells that respond to specific hormones
  22. Components of Hormones: Specificity
    Specific hormnones bind to specific receptor site
  23. Explain the importance of receptors and specifity?
    • Receptor: location where hormones bine (lock)
    • Specifity: specific hormones binds only to the specific receptor site
  24. Why dont all cells respond to every type of hormone?
    Because it has different lock and key to bonds on or different receptor to hind on
  25. Hormones - How does this work?
    • 1. Secreted by endocrine glands directly into bloodstream
    • 2. Hormones travel to all parts of the body
    • 3. Hormones(key) binds to recpetor site(lock) on target tissue
    • 4. Response occur
  26. How  do hormones cause change?
    • Alter cell activity of target tissue by increasing or increasing cell's normal process
    • Change permability of cell membrane by opening or closing ion channels
    • Synthesis of protiens
  27. Types of Hormones
    Water Soluble ans lipid hormones
  28. Types of hormones: Water soluble
    • Includes protiens, peptides and amino acid
    • Water soluble hormones binds to Membrane-bound receptors
    • most common
    • Ex. Growth hormone, antidiuretic(limits the formation of urine), portlactin
  29. Types of Hormones: Lipid hormones
    • Include steroids and eicosanoids(signaling molecules made by oxidation of twenty-carbon essential fatty acids)
    • Lipid hormone binds to Intracellular receptor
    • Ex. LH, FSH, androgens
  30. Regulation of Hormons
    • Blood levels of chemicals - Ex. blood glucose (insulin)
    • Other hormones -Ex. TSH signals thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones
    • Nervous system - Ex. Epinephrine and fight or fight response
    • Negative feedback - tells body whrn homeostasis is reached
  31. Pituitary Gland
    • Also called hypothesis
    • Piyuitary means - phlegm or thick mucous
    • Small gland in brain
    • Secretes at lease 6 hormones
    • Controlled by hypothalamus
    • Divided in 2 regions:
    • -Anterior:  Growth hormones,Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH, Thyroid-stimulating
    • Hormones TSH, LH-Luteinizing for males/females, FSH-Follicle-Stimulating for male/female, Malanocyte-stimulating hormone and Prolactin
    • -Posterior: Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Oxytocin(swift birth)

  32. Pituitary gland: 2 Region - Antroir and Posterior
  33. Anterior Pituitary Gland: Growth Hormone
    • Target tissues: most
    • Functions: stimulates growth of bones, muscles, and organs
    • Abnormalities:
    • Too much GH causes giantism
    • Too little GH causes pituitary dwarfism
  34. Anterior Pituitary Gland: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Receptor on adrinal cortex (increase hormone) called Cortisol or hydrocortisone
  35. Anterior Pituitary Gland: Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • Target tissues: Thyroid gland
    • Functions: regulates thyroid gland secretions
    • Abnormalities:
    • Too much TSH, thyroid gland enlarges
    • Too little TSH, thyroid gland shirnks

  36. Anterior Pituitary Gland: LH (Luteinizing) for females/males (GONADOTROPIC)
    • (GONADOTROPIC) - hormones that binds to membrane bond receptors
    • LH(Luteinizing) for females:
    • Target tissue: ovaries
    • Functions: promotes ovulation and progesteron production
    • LH(Luteinizing) for males:
    • Taget tissue: testes
    • Function: sperm production and testosteron
  37. Anterior Pituitary Gland: FSH (follicle-Stimulating) (GONADOTOPIC)
    • FSH(Follicle-Stimulating) for females:
    • Target tissue: follicles in ovaries
    • Function: follicle maturation and estrogen secretion (ovulation)
    • FSH for males:
    • Targer tissue: seminiferous tubules (testes)
    • Function: sperm production
  38. Anterior Pituitary Gland: Prolactin
    • Target tissues: mammary glands and ovaries
    • Functions: milk production
  39. Posterior Pituitary Gland: Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Target tissue: Kidneys
    • Functions: conserve water
    • Abnormalities:
    • -Diabetes insipidus(Peeing more water than normal = dihydration)
    • -low ADH
    • -kidneys to produce large amount of dilute(water) urine
    • -can lead to dehydration
  40. Posterior Pituitary Gland: Oxytocin
    • Peptide hormone that secreted by the posterior pituitary gland,  increases uterine contraction and stimulates milk ejection from the mammary glands
    • Commercial version of oxytocin - Pitocin
    • Target tissues: uterus
    • Functions: increases uterine contractions during labor
  41. Thyroid Gland
    • One of largst glands
    • Requires iodine to function
    • Connect by Isthmus
  42. Abnormalities of Thyroid Gland
    • Hypothyroidism:
    • -decrease metabolism
    • -weight gain, resuces appetite, fatique
    • -low temp. and pulse
    • -dry, cold skin
    • -Myxedema in adults
    • -cretinism in infant
    • Hyperthyroism
    • - increase metabolism
    • -wight loss, increase appetite, nervousness
    • -higher temp. and pulse
    • -warm, flushed skin
    • -Grave disease (leads to goiter)
  43. Thyroid Gland: Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)
    • (T3- Triiodothyronine and T4-Thyroxine)
    • Target tissue: most
    • Functions: regulates metabolic rates and is needed for growth
  44. Thyroid Gland: Calcitonin (calcium is high)
    • Target tissue: bones
    • Functions: secreted when blood Ca2+ levels are high and reduce the rate of calcium breakdown
  45. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • Has 4 tiny parathyroid glands located in the posterior wall of thyroid gland
    • Target tissues: bones and kidney
    • Functions; regulates blood Ca2+ levels
    • If Ca2+ is low then osteoclast break down bone matrix and less Ca2+ is  lost in urine
    • If Ca2+ is high then osteoclast don't break down bone matrix and more Ca2+ is lost in urine
    • Increase of osteoclast activity = resorption of bone  tissue to realease CA+
  46. Adrenal Glands
    • On kidney
    • 2 regions: Medula and cortex
  47. Adrenal Medulla(inner portion): Epinephrine/Norepinephrine
    • Epinephrine or Adrenaline
    • Target tissue: heart, blood vessels, liver, fat cells
    • Functions: released as part of fight or flight reponse
  48. Adrenal Cortex (outer portion): Aldosterone
    • Type of mineralocorticoids - regulate blood volume
    • Target tissues: Kidney
    • Functions: causes Na+ and H2O to be retained and K+ to be secreted, indirected invloved with blood pressure and blood volume
  49. Adrenal Cortex (outer portion): Cortisol - store stomach fat
    • Type of glucocorticoids or cortisone hormone
    • Target tissues: most
    • Functions: increases breakdown of fat and protein for energy uses reduces inflammatory and immune responses
  50. Adrenal Cortex (outer portion): Androgens
    • Target tissues: most
    • Functions:
    • -Males: secondary sexual characteristics
    • -Females: sex drive
  51. Pancreas
    • Origen in abdomen
  52. Pancreas: Insulin
    • Target tissue: liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue
    • Functions:
    • -regulates blood glucose levels
    • -after a meal glucose levels are high and insulin is secreted
    • -extra glucose is soted in form of glycogen
  53. Pancreas Abnormalities
    • Diabetes mellitus:
    • -Causes:  too little insulin of faulty insulin receptors
    • -Symptoms: exaggerated appetite, excess urine, dehydration, thirst, fatique
    • -Type 1: insulin dependent (daily injections required) --from early age/genetic
    • -Type 2: insulin independent, often found in obese people, can be treated with diet but can turn into type 1
  54. Pancreas: Glucagon
    • Target tissues: liver
    • Function:
    • -regulates blood glucose level
    • -between meals glucose levels drop and glucagon is secreted
    • -glucagon allows glycogen to be broken down in glucose
  55. Testes: Testosteron
    • Target tissues: most
    • Functions:aids in sperm and reproductive organs development and function
  56. Ovaries: Estrogen/Prgesterone
    • Target tissues: most
    • Functions: invlove in uterine and mammary gland development and menstrual cycle
  57. Thymus glan: Thymosin
    • Target tissues: immune system tissues
    • Functions: aids in sperm and reproductive organ development and function
    • -helps maturation of lymphocytes
  58. Pineal body gland: Melatonin
    • Target tissues: hypothalamus
    • Functions: plays a role in onset of puberty and controls circadian rhythms. Light affects its function
  59. Component  of Urinary system
    • 2 Kidneys
    • 2 ureters
    • 1 bladder
    • 1 urethra
  60. Kiney Characteristics
    • Shape and size - bean shaped and weights 5 oz. (size of first/bar of soap)
    • Location: between 12th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebra
  61. Kidney stuctures
    • Renal capsule
    • - connective tissues around each kidney/ outer most of kidney
    • -protection and act as a barrier
    • Hilum:
    • -indentation
    • -contains renal artery , veins, nerve and ureter
    • Renal sinus: (space) -contains renal pelvis, blood vessels and fat.
    • Renal cortex - outer portion
    • Renal medulla - Inner portion
    • Renal pyramid - jucntion between cortex and medulla
    • Calyx - tip of pyramid
    • Renal pelvis - where calyces join and narrow to form ureter
    • Nephron - fucntional unit of kidney and over 1million/kindneys
  62. Component of Nepron
    • Renal capsule - structure that contains a bowman's capsule and glomerulus
    • Bowman's capsule:
    • - enlage end of nephron
    • - open to proximal tube
    • - contains podocytes (specialized cells a round glomerular capillaries)
    • Glomerus - contains capillaries wrapped around it
    • Filtration membrane - in renal capsule
    • includes glomerular capillaries, podocytes, basement membrane
    • Filtrate - fluid that passes across filtation membrane
    • Proximal tube - where filtrate passes first
    • Loop of Henle:
    • - contains descending and acending loops
    • - water and solutes pass through thin walls by duffusion
    • Distal tubule: - structure between loop of henle and collecting duct
    • Collecting duct:
    • - empties into calyces
    • -carry fluid from cortex through collecting ducts
  63. Flow of Filtration through Nefron
    • Renal capsule
    • Proximal tube
    • Descending loop of henle
    • Ascending loop of henle
    • Distal tube
    • Collecting duct
    • Calyx
    • Renal Pelvis
    • Ureter
  64. Urine Formation
    • Filtration - is the movement of materials across the filtration membrane into Bowman's capsule to form filtrate
    • Tubular reabsorption - -solutes are reabsorbed across the wall of the nephron into the interstitial fluid by transport processes, such as active transpport.
    • -Water is reabsorbed across the wall of the nephone by osmosis.
    • Water and solutes pass from the  intersitial fluid into the peritubular capillaries
    • Tubular secretion - solutes are secreted across the wall of the nephron into the filtrate
  65. Urine Formation: Filtration
    • Filtration - is the movement of materials across the filtration membrane into Bowman's capsule to form filtrate
    • 19% of plasma  becomes filter
    • 180 Litres of filters are produced by the nephrons each day
    • 1% of filter (1.8 L) become urine rest is reabsorbed
    • Only small molecules are able to pass through filtration membrane
    • Formation of filtrate depends on filtraion pressure
    • Filtration pressure forces fluid across filtration membrane
    • Filtration pressure is influence by blood pressure.
  66. Urine Formation: Tubular Reabsorption
    • 99% of filtrate is reabsorbed and reenters circulation
    • Promimal tubule is primary site for reabsorption of solutes and water
    • Descending loop of henle concentrates filtrate
    • Reabsorption of water and molecultes form distal tubules and collecting duct is controlled by hormones
  67. Urine Formation: Tubular Secretion
    Wate, small ions, by product of metabolism, durgs, urea are found in urine
  68. Ureters:
    Small tubes that carry urine from renal pelvis of kidney to bladder
  69. Urinary bladder
    • in pelvic cavity
    • store urine
    • can hold a few ml to a max of 1000ml
  70. Urethra
    • Tube that exist bladder
    • carries urine from urinary bladder to outside of the body
  71. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism
    • Renin acts on angtiotensionogen to produce angiotensin 1
    • Angiotensin -converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
    • Angiotensin 2 causes vasocinstriction
    • Angiotensin 2 acts on adrenal cortex to relase aldosterone
    • Aldosterone increases rate of active transport of Na+ in distal tubules and collecting duct.
    • Volume of water in urine decreases
  72. Antidiuretic Hormone mechanism
    • ADH is secretd in posterior pituitary gland controlled by hypothalam
    • ADH acts on kidney and they absorb more water(decrease urine volume)
    • Result is maintain blood volume an blood pressure
  73. Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
    • Is secreted from cardiac muscle to right atrium of heart when blood pressure increases
    • ANH acts on kidney to decrease Na+ reabsorption
    • Sodium ions remains in nephron to be come urine
    • Increase loss of sodium and water reduced blood volume and blood pressure
    • Increase pressure = decrease water
    • Decrease pressure = Increase water
  74. Juxtaglomerular apparatus
    • Specialized wall of the distal convoluted tubule and afferent arterole that secrete renin
    • Respondible for the secreation of renin.
  75. Urine Movement: Micturition reflex
    • Micturition reflex - is activated by stretch of urinary bladder wall
    • Action potentials are conducted from bladder to spinal cord through pelvis nerve
    • Parasympathertic action potentials cause bladder to contract
    • Stretching of bladder stimulates sensory newutons to inform brain person need to urine
  76. Thrist Regulation
    • Water intake is controlled by hypothalamus in thirst center
    • Conc. of blood increase thirst center respons by initiating sensation of thirst
    • When water is consume, conc. of blood decreases and sensation of thirst decreases
    • Increase water intake reduces blood conc. and increase blood volume
  77. Zygote
    • What develops after fertilization
    • develops into an embryo 3-14 days after fertilization
  78. Embryo
    14-56 days after fertilization
  79. Fetus
    56 days after fertilization
  80. Male reproductive organs: Scrotum
    • Outer layer of testes
    • Contains testes
    • Contains Darots muscle that moves scrotum and testes close to and away from body depending on temp.
  81. Male reproductive organs: Seminiferous tube
    • Where sperm is produced
    • Contain Interstitial cells - secrete testosterone
    • Contains germ cells - begin of sperm cell
    • Contain Sustentecular cells - nurish gem cells and produce hormone
  82. Production of sperm cells
    • Germ cells = Spermatogonia
    • Primary spermotocytes
    • Secondary spermotocytes
    • Spermatids
    • Sperm cells
  83. Epididymis
    • Thread-like tubles on side of each testis
    • Where seminiferous tubules empty new sperm
    • Where sperm continue to mature develop, ability to swim and ability to bind to oocytes.
  84. Ductus deferens
    • Vas deferens
    • Extend from epidymis and joins seminal vsicle
    • Cute during vasectomy
    • Join with blood vessels and nerves and is surrounded by connective tissue = spermatic cord
  85. Seminal vesicles
    • There are 2 Function as glands
    • Ducts join with ductus deferens to from ejaculatory duct
    • Each ejaculatory duct joins the urethra in the prostate gland
  86. Urethra
    • Extend from urinary bladder to end of penis
    • Passageway of urine and male reprodunctive fluids
  87. Penis
    • Corporus caversosum, corpus spongiosum, spongy urethra: 3 columns of erectile tissue which fill with blood for erection
    • Functions - transfer sperm from male to female and excrete urine
  88. Seminal Vesicle
    • Next to ductus deferens help form ejaculatory duct
  89. Prostate glands
    • Surounds urethra
    • Size of walnutins
    • Contains enzymes that liquify semen after it is inside female
    • neutralizes acidity of vagina 
  90. Bulbourethral glad
    • Small mucus secreting glands near base of prostate gland
    • Neutralize acidity of male urethra and femal vagina
  91. Secretion: Semen
    • Mix of sperm and secretion from glands 
    • Provides a transport medium and nutrients that protect and activate sperm
    • 60% of fluid is from seminal vesicle
    • 30% of fluid is from prostate gland
    • 5% of fluid is from bulbourethral gland
    • 5% of fluid is from testes
  92. Testicular secretions:
    • include sperm and small amount of fluid
    • 2-5 ml of semen is ejaculated each time
    • 1 ml of semen contains 100 million sperm
    • Sperm can live for 72 hours once inside female
  93. Path of sperm
    • Sperm develop in semiferous tubules
    • Epididymis (matures)
    • Ductus deferens
    • Receieve secretion from seminal vesicle, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland
    • Urethra where semen (sperm) exit body