Cooking 2

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overdork
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188754
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Cooking 2
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2012-12-18 14:12:01
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cooking techniques
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  1. Sautéing
    form of dry-heat cooking that uses a very hot pan and a small amount of fat to cook the food very quickly. Like other dry-heat cooking methods, sautéing browns the food's surface as it cooks and develops complex flavors and aromas
  2. Pan-Frying
    It's a lot like sautéing, but with a few key differences. Besides the fact that there's no tossing, pan-frying uses slightly more fat and slightly lower temperatures than sautéing. This makes it a good method for cooking larger pieces of meat that would not have time to cook through because with sautéing, the food isn't in the pan for very long. For that reason, larger pieces of meat are often finished in the oven after the surface has been cooked to the desired degree.
  3. What is the Best Steak?
    The first step in cooking a perfect steak is choosing the right cut of beef. You want to select a cut of meat that's tender and has plenty of marbling. In general, the best cuts of beef for steak come from the rib, short loin or tenderloin primal cuts
  4. Smoke Points of Fats and Oils:Butter
    350°F
  5. Smoke Points of Fats and Oils-Lard
    375°F
  6. Smoke Points of Fats and Oils-Olive Oil
    325°F - 375°F
  7. Smoke Points of Fats and Oils- the high ones
    Clarified Butter450°F - 475°FSunflower Oil450°F - 475°FSoybean Oil450°F - 475°FSafflower Oil475°F - 500°FCorn Oil400°F - 450°FCanola Oil425°F - 475°F
  8. Smoke Points of Fats and Oils-vegetable shortening
    Vegetable Shortening (Hydrogenated)325°F
  9. Confit
    Generic term for various kinds of food that have been immersed in a substance for both flavour and preservation. Sealed and stored in a cool place, confit can last for several months. Confit is one of the oldest ways to preserve food and is a speciality of southwestern France.
  10. Ten ways for healthier cooking and eating
    1. Whole grains over refined grains  2.Smart fats (unsaturated versus saturated like olive oil versus butter) 3.Incorporate fruits and vegetables into meals 4. Use small amounts of lean meat, fish and poultry 5. Low fat dairy 6. Smaller portions 7. Use sweeteners judiciously and sparingly if possible 8. Restrict sodium with an eye on consuming only 2300 mg or 1 teaspoon a day 9. Flavor food with herbs, spices and citrus 10. Enjoy what you eat and be satisfied
  11. Conversion ration of fresh herbs and spices to ground 
    1 tablespoon of a fresh herb or spice = 1 teaspoon of the ground version.
  12. Health cooking: Saute methods
    Instead of butter when cooking healthy (besides using small amounts olive oil) sautè vegetables and meats in wine, water, or broth
  13. fond
    A classic French culinary term meaning the browned caramelized and concentrated bits or residue that remains in the pan after cooking meat. The fond is what you are after when you "deglaze" a pan for flavoring sauces and making gravies.
  14. What  are the kinds of whole grains?
    1.AMARANTH  2.BARLEY  3.BUCKWHEAT 4.BULGUR 5.CORN 6.FARRO 7.GRANO 8.KAMUT 9. KAÑIWA 10.MILLET 11.OATS 12.QUINOA 13.RICE 14. RYE 15. SORGHUM 16.SPELT 17. TEFF 18. TRITICALE 19. WHEAT 20. WILD RICE
  15. Foie gras
     [fwa ɡʁɑ]); French for "fat liver") is a food product made of theliver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened. By French law,[1] foie gras is defined as the liver of a duck fattened by gavage (force-feeding corn), although outside of France it is occasionally produced using natural feeding.[2] A pastry containing pâté de foie gras andbacon, or pâté de foie gras tout court, was formerly known as "Strasbourg pie" (or "Strasburg pie"[3]) in English on account of that city's being a major producer of foie gras
  16. Lemon Curd
    • Ingredients3 lemons1 1/2 cups sugar1/4 pound unsalted butter, room temperature4 extra-large eggs1/2 cup lemon juice (3 to 4 lemons)1/8 teaspoon kosher salt
    • Using a carrot peeler, remove the zest of 3 lemons, being careful to avoid the white pith. Put the zest in a food processor fitted with the steel blade. Add the sugar and pulse until the zest is very finely minced into the sugar.Cream the butter and beat in the sugar and lemon mixture. Add the eggs, 1 at a time, and then add the lemon juice and salt. Mix until combined.Pour the mixture into a 2 quart saucepan and cook over low heat until thickened (about 10 minutes), stirring constantly. The lemon curd will thicken at about 170 degrees F, or just below simmer. Remove from the heat and cool or refrigerate.
  17. Healthy dressings
    For rich, creamy dressings made healthy, substitute half the mayo with Greek-style yogurt.
  18. Chopping herbs
     When chopping herbs, toss a little salt onto the cutting board; it will keep the herbs from flying around.
  19. Seasoning 101
    Always season meat and fish evenly; sprinkle salt and pepper as though it's "snowing." This will avoid clumping or ending up with too much seasoning in some areas and none in others.
  20. Baking tips
    For best results when you're baking, leave butter and eggs at room temperature overnight.
  21. Meatball Tip 
     When making meatballs or meatloaf, you need to know how the mixture tastes before you cook it. Make a little patty and fry it in a pan like a mini hamburger. Then you can taste it and adjust the seasoning.
  22. Roast chicken tip
     Instead of placing a chicken on a roasting rack, cut thick slices of onion, put them in an oiled pan, then place the chicken on top. The onion will absorb the chicken juices. After roasting, let the chicken rest while you make a sauce with the onions by adding a little stock or water to the pan and cooking it for about 3 minutes on high heat.
  23. Fresh corn technique
    After cutting corn off the cob, use the back side of a knife (not the blade side) to scrape the cob again to extract the sweet milk left behind. This milk adds flavor and body to any corn dish.Lay the corn horizontally on a board, then cut off the kernels.Run the back of your knife over the empty cob to extract the milk.26. Acidity, salt and horseradish bring out full flavors in food.
  24. Cooking 101- recipes
    Take the time to actually read recipes through before you begin.
  25. Cooking 101- prep
     Organize yourself. Write a prep list and break that list down into what may seem like ridiculously small parcels, like "grate cheese" and "grind pepper" and "pull out plates." You will see that a "simple meal" actually has more than 40 steps. If even 10 of those steps require 10 minutes each and another 10 of those steps take 5 minutes each, you're going to need two and a half hours of prep time. (And that doesn't include phone calls, bathroom breaks and changing the radio station!) Write down the steps and then cross them off. It's very satisfying!
  26. Cooking 101- tips
    Taste as you go!Anne Burrell
  27. Onions in salsa tip
    Anytime you are using raw onions in a salsa and you are not going to eat that salsa in the next 20 minutes or so, be sure to rinse the diced onions under cold running water first, then blot dry. This will rid them of sulfurous gas that can ruin fresh salsa. It's really important in guacamole, too.
  28. Pasta 101
    Do not use oil in the water when boiling pasta: It will keep the sauce from sticking to the cooked pasta.
  29. Sauteing garlic
    When you’re going to sauté garlic, slice it rather than mincing it — it's less likely to burn that way.
  30. Searing  meat
    When you're browning meat, you should blot the surface dry with a paper towel so the meat doesn't release moisture when it hits the hot oil. Too much moisture makes the meat steam instead of sear, and you will lose that rich brown crus
  31. Cutting meat
    To cut pancetta or bacon into lardons, put in the freezer for 15 minutes. This will firm up the meat and make it easier to cut
  32. Caramelized vegetables
    To get nice, crispy caramelization on roasted vegetables, simulate the intense heat of an industrial oven: Bring your oven up as hot as it goes, then put an empty roasting or sheet pan inside for 10 to 15 minutes. Toss the vegetables — try carrots or Brussels sprouts — with olive oil, salt and pepper, and put them on the hot pan. This method will give you the high heat you need to caramelize the sugars in the vegetables quickly.
  33. Finishing oils 
    Invest in a bottle of high-quality olive oil. Just a small drizzle can really bring out the flavor of pizza, mozzarella, pasta, fish and meat.
  34. Marinating 101
    Marinating meat with citrus can give it a mealy texture. If you like citrus, a little squeeze of lemon or lime is always a good way to finish the dish instead
  35. Salad Seasoning
    When seasoning a salad, use coarse sea salt mixed with a little olive oil. It will stay crunchy when combined with the vinaigrette.
  36. Vegetable 101
    Plunge vegetables in ice water after blanching (boiling) them so they maintain a bright color.
  37. Pasta 101
     My grandfather taught me this tip: After you drain pasta, while it's still hot, grate some fresh Parmesan on top before tossing it with your sauce. This way, the sauce has something to stick to.
  38. Saute 101
    Don't overcrowd the pan when you're sautéing — it'll make your food steam instead.
  39. Storing basil
    Fresh basil keeps much better and longer at room temperature with the stems in water.
  40. Steak 101
    To cook a steak, I always start by cooking it on its side, where there is a rim of fat on its narrow edge. I render it down so there's good, flavorful fat in the pan for the rest of the cooking.Choose a steak with a layer of fat on one side, such as ribeye or sirloin.Put the steak fat-side down in a hot pan, holding it with tongs.Once the fat is rendered, lay the steak flat in the pan and cook on both sides.
  41. Fish 101
    Season fish simply and cook it with respect. The flavor of the fish is what you want. When it comes off the grill or out of the oven or pan, finish it with a little squeeze of fresh lemon juice. Always. There is just something about lemon and fish that is heavenly.
  42. Cauliflower cooking tip
    If you're cooking cauliflower, add a bit of milk to the water with salt to keep the cauliflower bright white. Shock it in cold water to stop the cooking and then serve.
  43. Grinding burgers
    When grinding your own beef for burgers, grind in some bacon.( or boneless short ribs)
  44. Shopping as a chef
     Don't go to the store with a shopping list. Go to the store, see what ingredients look good and then make your list.
  45. Mashed potato techniques
    When making mashed potatoes, after you drain the potatoes, return them to the hot pan, cover tightly and let steam for 5 minutes. This allows the potatoes to dry out so they'll mash to a beautiful texture and soak up the butter and cream more easily.
  46. Roux techniques
     If you want to make a proper Louisiana-style roux that's chocolate in color and rich in flavor, remember slow and low is the way to go.
  47. Asparagus cooking technique
    For better-tasting asparagus, cure the stalks: Peel them, roll in equal parts sugar and salt, and let them sit for 10 minutes, then rinse off and prepare as desired.
  48. Baking 101
    Always measure what you're baking. No shortcuts in pastry: It's a science.
  49. Cilantro and Parsley techniques
    When using fresh herbs such as cilantro or parsley, add whole stems to salads and sandwiches, and chop and stir leaves into salsas and guacamole.
  50. Risotto techniques
     When made properly, risotto's richness comes from the starchy rice and the stock. As the risotto cooks, stir it with a wooden spoon in rhythmic movements that go across the bottom and around the sides of the pan. The rice should constantly be bubbling, drinking up the liquid as it cooks.
  51. Juicing a citrus
     To optimize the juice you get from a lemon or lime, roll it hard under your palm for a minute before juicing. (Or — never say I told you this — microwave it for 10 to 15 seconds.)
  52. Vegetable soup tip
    For perfect vegetable soup, start with diced carrots, onions, peppers and tomatoes sautéed in oil or butter before you add any liquid. This brings out the taste and caramelizes the sugars.
  53. Mise en place (its really important)
    Have your mise en place ready: Do all of your cutting of vegetables and meat and make your sauces before you start cooking.
  54. Cooking tips 1001
    Try smoked fleur de sel: Use it sparingly to finish a dish and bring another layer of flavor.Fleur de sel ("flower of salt" in French; French pronunciation: [flœr də sɛl]) or flor de sal ("flower of salt" in Portuguese, Spanish and Catalan) is a hand-harvested sea salt collected by workers who scrape only the top layer of salt before it sinks to the bottom of large salt pans.
  55. Cooking tips 1002
    Clean as you go. (Dorky, but I swear it really helps.)
  56. Garlic 101
    Always buy the freshest garlic you can find; the fresher it is, the sweeter it will be. The best garlic has firm tissue-like skin and should not be bruised, sprouted, soft or shriveled. If you find cloves that have green shoots, discard the shoots — they will only add bitterness.
  57. Seasoning other than salt
    Keep flavored vinegars near the stove so you won't always reach for the salt. Acid enhances flavor.
  58. Fried Egg Technique
    Fry eggs the Spanish way: Get a good quantity of olive oil hot. Before you add the egg, heat the spatula (if it's metal) in the oil first. That way the egg won't stick to it. Add the egg and fry it quickly, until it gets "puntillitas," or slightly browned edges. José Andrés Think Food GroupHeat a metal spatula in a skillet with hot olive oil.Fry the eggs until browned around the edges; remove with the hot spatula.
  59. Frying tips 
    Want to know if your oil is hot enough for frying? Here’s a tip: Stick a wooden skewer or spoon in the oil. If bubbles form around the wood, then you are good to go
  60. Zesting with style
     When a recipe calls for zest, instead of grating it into a separate container or onto parchment paper, hold the zester over the mixing bowl and zest directly onto the butter or cream. The aromatic citrus oils that are sprayed into the bowl will give the dessert a zesty finish.
  61. Salads for a big party
    Don't dress the salad when having a big party. Leave it on the side and let the people do it themselves. I've had too many soggy salads because of this.
  62. Fish cookery 101
     For crispy fish skin, rest the fish on paper towels skin-side down for a few minutes before cooking (the towels absorb moisture). Then sauté skin-side down over medium heat in oil and butter. Flip over for the last few minutes of cooking.
  63. Eggplant tips
    When cooking eggplant, I like to use the long, skinny, purple Japanese kind because you don't have to salt it to pull out the bitter liquid like you do with the larger Italian variety.
  64. Caramelized onions tip
     Caramelize onions very quickly by cooking them in a dry nonstick sauté pan over medium-high heat. They will caramelize beautifully in a lot less time than with traditional methods
  65. Pasta 101
    Whenever you cook pasta, remove some of the pasta-cooking water (about 1/4 or 1/3 cup) just before draining. When you add the sauce of your choice to the pasta, add a little of the cooking liquid. This helps sauce to amalgamate; the starch in the water adds body and a kind of creaminess. An old Italian friend of mine instructed me in this finishing touch early on, and I would never, ever leave it out. It makes all the difference.
  66. Cookies 101
     When baking cookies, be sure your dough is thoroughly chilled when it goes on your baking pan. This will allow the leavening ingredients to work before the butter flattens out and your cookies lose their textural distinctions.
  67. Baking Tips
    The smaller the item, the higher the baking temperature. For example, I bake mini chocolate chip-toffee cookies at 500 degrees F for only 4 minutes. Perfect end result.
  68. Pasta 101
     Cook pasta 1 minute less than the package instructions and cook it the rest of the way in the pan with sauce.

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