Card Set Information
Plant Biology Joshua Buck
don't Have leaves, have gills, one purpose-spore dispersal, 10,000 spores a day, an earthstar fungi-disperses by the rain. Some spread by insects-fly and stinkhorn fungi
What delicate threads make up the fungi?
Hyphae- individual threads
Mycelium= Mass of hyphae
What are some characteristics of fungi?
-All true fungi are filamentous or unicellular heterotrophs, most of which absorb their food in solution through cell walls.
-Chitin in cell walls
-All are filamentous, with the exception of some chytrids and all yeasts.
-Most lack motile cells.
What are Chiytrids? Name characteristics.
•Simple, mostly one-celled organisms
•Some are parasitic, and other are saprobic.
–Saprobic - Feed on nonliving organic material
•Some consist of a spherical cell with colorless, branching threads (rhizoids) at one end for anchorage.
•Some develop short hyphae or even complete mycelia that are coenocytic.
–Coenocytic - Without crosswalls
How do chiytrids reproduce?
-•Many reproduce only asexually through the production of zoospores within a spherical cell.
•Sexual reproduction by fusion of haploid gametes
•Zygote undergoes meiosis and is often a resting spore.
Which fungi are responsible for the death of many ampbinians?
Chytrids by Chytridiomycosis
What are Zygomycota? Name some characteristics
•Black bread molds - Best-known members of this phylum
–Rhizopus - Well-known and found everywhere
•Coenocytic hyphae with numerous haploid nuclei
How does zygomycota reproduce?
Asexual reproduction: –Sporangiophores grow upright and produce sporangia at tips.Black spores formed in sporangia
-Sexual reproduction by conjugation
–Thick wall forms around coenozygote = zygosporangium containing numerous diploid nuclei.
-Meiosis forms spores in sporangia on sporangiophores
What is zygomocota commonly called? and what is it's relevance in human ecology?
-called The coenocytic true fungi
oTempeh in Indonesia (soy beans + Rhizopus)
«Some steps in manufacture of birth control pills and anesthetics
«Yellow pigment for coloring margarine
what are ascomycota? Name characteristics
-The ascomycetes (sac fungi)-like the morel
•Truffles are reproductive bodies.
•Also includes yeasts, powdery mildews, ergot, and morels
vMost produce mycelia with hyphae partitioned into individual cylindrical cells.
How does ascomycota reproduce?
•Single or chains of conidia produced at tips of hyphae called conidiophores.
•Budding - Yeasts
–Antheridium and ascogonium from two hyphae connect.
–Male nuclei migrate into ascogonium where nuclei pair, but do not unite.
–Ascogenous hyphae, whose cells contain one male and one female nucleus, grow from ascogonium.
–Ascoma forms, with hymenial layer composed of sacs called asci (singular
What are Human and ecological relevance of ascomycota
oMorels and truffles
«Fermentation produces ethyl alcohol - Wines, beers
«CO2 causes bread dough to rise and gives it porous texture.
•Human and ecological relevance
–Ergot fungus may infect rye and other grains.
oErgotism may occur in those who eat the contaminated bread.
oErgot drugs are medicinally useful in small doses.
-Initial source for the manufacture of LSD
–Plant diseases - Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight
What was to blame for salem witchtrials?
ergotism- in the grain
What are basidiomycota? Name some Characteristics
•Includes mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, smuts, jelly fungi
•Hyphae divided into individual cells.
How do basidiomycota reproduce?
oMainly through conidia
•Each cell of hyphae contain a single haploid nucleus = monokaryotic hyphae.
–Hyphae of individual mating types unite and initiate a new mycelium, called dikaryotic hyphae, in which each cell has one nucleus from each original mating type.
What composes the mushroom?
-Mushroom composed of cap = pileus, stalk = stipe, and annulus (collar originally connecting cap to stalk).
oGills - Plates that radiate out from stalk on underside of cap
Discuss Sexual reproduction of basidiomycota?
–Basidia (swollen ends of hyphae) on gills
–The two nuclei in each basidium unite and the resulting diploid nucleus undergoes meiosis.
–4 resulting basidiospores sit on sterigmata at tip of basidium.
What are fairy rings?
•Fairy rings - Dikaryotic hyphae radiate out from starting point, producing basidiomata.