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don't Have leaves, have gills, one purpose-spore dispersal, 10,000 spores a day, an earthstar fungi-disperses by the rain. Some spread by insects-fly and stinkhorn fungi
What delicate threads make up the fungi?
Hyphae- individual threads
Mycelium= Mass of hyphae
What are some characteristics of fungi?
-All true fungi are filamentous or unicellular heterotrophs, most of which absorb their food in solution through cell walls.
- -Chitin in cell walls
- -All are filamentous, with the exception of some chytrids and all yeasts.
- -Most lack motile cells.
What are Chiytrids? Name characteristics.
•Simple, mostly one-celled organisms
- •Some are parasitic, and other are saprobic.
- –Saprobic - Feed on nonliving organic material
- •Some consist of a spherical cell with colorless, branching threads (rhizoids) at one end for anchorage.
- •Some develop short hyphae or even complete mycelia that are coenocytic.
- –Coenocytic - Without crosswalls
How do chiytrids reproduce?
- -•Many reproduce only asexually through the production of zoospores within a spherical cell.
- •Sexual reproduction by fusion of haploid gametes
- •Zygote undergoes meiosis and is often a resting spore.
Which fungi are responsible for the death of many ampbinians?
Chytrids by Chytridiomycosis
What are Zygomycota? Name some characteristics
•Black bread molds - Best-known members of this phylum
- –Rhizopus - Well-known and found everywhere
- •Coenocytic hyphae with numerous haploid nuclei
How does zygomycota reproduce?
Asexual reproduction: –Sporangiophores grow upright and produce sporangia at tips.Black spores formed in sporangia
- -Sexual reproduction by conjugation
- –Thick wall forms around coenozygote = zygosporangium containing numerous diploid nuclei.
- -Meiosis forms spores in sporangia on sporangiophores
What is zygomocota commonly called? and what is it's relevance in human ecology?
-called The coenocytic true fungi
- –Food sources
- oTempeh in Indonesia (soy beans + Rhizopus)
- –Industrial uses
- «Some steps in manufacture of birth control pills and anesthetics
- «Yellow pigment for coloring margarine
what are ascomycota? Name characteristics
-The ascomycetes (sac fungi)-like the morel
- •Truffles are reproductive bodies.
- •Also includes yeasts, powdery mildews, ergot, and morels
- vMost produce mycelia with hyphae partitioned into individual cylindrical cells.
How does ascomycota reproduce?
- Asexual reproduction:
- •Single or chains of conidia produced at tips of hyphae called conidiophores.
- •Budding - Yeasts
- •Sexual reproduction:
- –Antheridium and ascogonium from two hyphae connect.
- –Male nuclei migrate into ascogonium where nuclei pair, but do not unite.
- –Ascogenous hyphae, whose cells contain one male and one female nucleus, grow from ascogonium.
- –Ascoma forms, with hymenial layer composed of sacs called asci (singular: ascus).
What are Human and ecological relevance of ascomycota
- oMorels and truffles
- «Fermentation produces ethyl alcohol - Wines, beers
- «CO2 causes bread dough to rise and gives it porous texture.
- •Human and ecological relevance:
- –Ergot fungus may infect rye and other grains.
- oErgotism may occur in those who eat the contaminated bread.
- oErgot drugs are medicinally useful in small doses.
- -Initial source for the manufacture of LSD
- –Plant diseases - Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight
What was to blame for salem witchtrials?
ergotism- in the grain
What are basidiomycota? Name some Characteristics
- -Club Fungi
- •Includes mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, smuts, jelly fungi
- •Hyphae divided into individual cells.
How do basidiomycota reproduce?
- oMainly through conidia
- •Each cell of hyphae contain a single haploid nucleus = monokaryotic hyphae.
- •Sexual reproduction:
- –Hyphae of individual mating types unite and initiate a new mycelium, called dikaryotic hyphae, in which each cell has one nucleus from each original mating type.
What composes the mushroom?
-Mushroom composed of cap = pileus, stalk = stipe, and annulus (collar originally connecting cap to stalk).
oGills - Plates that radiate out from stalk on underside of cap
Discuss Sexual reproduction of basidiomycota?
–Basidia (swollen ends of hyphae) on gills
- –The two nuclei in each basidium unite and the resulting diploid nucleus undergoes meiosis.
- –4 resulting basidiospores sit on sterigmata at tip of basidium.
•Fairy rings - Dikaryotic hyphae radiate out from starting point, producing basidiomata.