Cognitive Psychology Final Exam

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Arukio
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Cognitive Psychology Final Exam
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2012-12-12 00:23:55
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Cognitive Psychology
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Cognitive Psychology final Prof. Annis USF
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  1. What is the Information-Processing Approach
    This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment. The mind’s machinery includes attention mechanisms for bringing information in, working memory for actively manipulating information, and long term memory for passively holding information so that it can be used in the future.
  2. What is the Early Selection Model
    Proposes that a filter identifies the attended message based on its physical features
  3. What is "levels-of-processing theory?"
    Theory that states, "Memory depends on deep and shallow encoding."
  4. What is Spatial Representation
    Kosslyn's mental scanning experiments indicated this type of representation for mental imagery.
  5. What is Restructuring
    Gestalt Psychologists would calll changing the problem's representation
  6. Bottom-up processing
    Processing that begins with receptors (senses) 
  7. What is location based attention
    Attention directed to a specific place.
  8. What is Encoding Specificity
    States that we encode information along with its context. Suggests that you study in a similar environment to which you will be tested.
  9. What is Propositional Representation
    A representation in which relationships can be represented by abstract symbols.
  10. What are the Inititial, Goal, and all Intermediate states?
    The problem space consists of all of these.
  11. What is the Likelihood Principle?
    We perceive the object that is most likely to have caused the pattern of stimuli we have received
  12. Components of Modal Memory
    Sensory, short term, and long term memory
  13. What is Reminiscence Bump?
    The enhanced memory for adolescence and young adulthood found in people over 40.
  14. Phonemes
    -Consists of a phone or group of phones.

    -If you change the phoneme you change the word. Phones in a phoneme can be swapped without changing the meaning of a word. CK vs K or Cat vs Kat.

    Goat has 3 phonemes or "sounds"- G, OA, and T, and "PH" is one phoneme.
  15. What is a Valid Argument?
    The conclusiong follows logically from the premises
  16. What is a Double Disociation?
    Two functions [of the brain] are independant and involve different mechanisms
  17. Recency effect
    Answer needed
  18. What is the Prototype Approach
    membership to category is determined by comparing the object to an average of the category
  19. What is the Interactionist Approach to Parsing
    While reading, meaning is taken into account.
  20. Wason four-card problem is this
    Answer needed
  21. Dendrite, Axon, and Cell Body
    Key Structures of the neuron. Clarification needed.
  22. Episodic and Semantic Memory
    The two types of declaritive memory. Clarification needed
  23. What is a Concept?
    A concept is represented by a node. Clarification needed
  24. What is the Situation Model
    States that texts are represented in terms of the events and people being described, not information about phrases, sentences and paragraphs.
  25. Availability Heuristic
    People tend to think of things they remember easily as more important or probable than things they don't remember as easily.
  26. What is Behaviorism
    John Watson proposed to eliminate the mind as a topic of study. Instead, study directly observable behavior. 

    Classical Conditioning
  27. Define: Cognition
    • The mental processes involved in perception, attention,
    • memory, language, problem solving, reasoning, and decision making
  28. How can the mind be studied scientifically?
    Mental processes cannot be observed directly, but can be inferred by measuring behavior.
  29. Define Cognitive Neuroscience
    Study the biological foundations of mental phenomena.
  30. Structure of a neuron
  31. Describe Action Potential
    • –Relative difference in charge between the inside and outside of the neuron
    • - On or Off
    • - Strength is derrived from frequency
  32. Describe Specificity Coding (theory)
    Representation of a specific stimulus by firing of specifically tuned neurons specialized to just respond to a specific stimulus

    –Grandmother cell
  33. Describe Distributed Coding
    Representation by a pattern of firing across a number of neurons

    - Not grandmother cell
  34. Physiological Measure of the Brain: Single Neuron
    Studying single neurons with the use of micro electrodes

    Determine which stimulus a single neuron responds to
  35. Physiological Measure of the Brain: ERP (Event-related Potential)
    • •ERP - the brain’s electrical response to an
    • event (stimuli)

    •Stronger response to unexpected stimuli

    •When, not where
  36. Physiological Measure of the Brain: PET (Positron Emission Tomography)
    •Radioactive tracer is injected into bloodstream

    •PET apparatus measures the amount of tracer in each location of the brain

    Measure of where in the brain, not when.
  37. Physiological Measure of the Brain: fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
    •Measures blood flow without radioactive tracers (like PET)

    •Uses magnetic field to measure blood flow

    Measure of where in the brain, not when,
  38. Physiological Measure of the Brain: Brain Lesioning
    • •Intentional damage or removal of part of the
    • brain

    –Animal studies

    • •Allows us to see which cognitive impairments
    • are associated with certain brain areas
  39. Physiological Measure of the Brain: Neuropsychology
    •Study of the behavioral effects of brain damage in humans (Case Studies)

    –Brain damage caused by accidents or a stroke

    •ie. Phineas Gage, rail spike
  40. Top-Down Processing
    –Perception may start with the brain: knowledge, experience, expectations

    –Knowledge driven processing
  41. Helmholtz’s Theory Of Unconscious Inference (~1860)
    Likelihood principle: we perceive the world in the way that is “most likely” based on our past experiences
  42. Describe the 7 Gestalt laws of perceptual organization.
    Perceptual organization: grouping of elements to create larger objects.

    • 1. Law of Good Continuation: lines tend to be seen
    • as following the smoothest path

    • 2. Law of Good Figure (simplicity or prägnanz): Every
    • stimulus pattern is seen so the resulting structure is as simple as possible

    3. Law of Similarity: Similar things appear grouped together

    4. Proximity: We group things that are near to one another

    5. Closure: We add missing elements to complete a figure

    6. Law of Common Fate: Things moving in the same direction appear to be grouped together

    7. Law of Familiarity: Things are more likely to form groups if the groups appear familiar or meaningful
  43. Perceptual Heuristics: Physical Regularities
    •Light-from-above heuristic- We perceive shadows as specific information about depth and distance

    • •Size Constancy – objects maintain
    • their size no matter how close or far they are

    • •Shape Constancy – objects maintain
    • their shapes no matter what their orientation

    • •Brightness Constancy – objects
    • maintain the same brightness no matter what the lighting
  44. Describe the Dissociation Procedure in neuropsychology.
    Single dissociation–One function is lost, another remains

    Example: Monkey A has damage to temporal lobe. This monkey is no longer able to identify objects (what) but can still identify locations (where)

      Therefore, what and where rely on different mechanisms, although they may not operate totally independent of one another

    Double dissociation–Requires two individuals with different damage and opposite deficits

    •Example: Monkey A with temporal lobe damage has intact where but impaired what; Monkey B with parietal lobe damage has intact what but impaired where

    –Therefore, what and where streams must have different mechanisms AND operate independently of one another
  45. "What Stream" and "Where Stream"
    What: Damaged temporal lobe- This monkey has impaired what, but can still identify locations (where)

    Where: Damaged parietal lobe- has intact what but impaired where
  46. Describe Early Selection Model
    •According to the Filter Model, sensory information is filtered out based on physical characteristics before meaning is attached

    •Early selection model

    •Supported by previous findings
  47. Describe Late Selection Model
    •Alternative to filter models of auditory attention

    •All information gets processed for meaning

    •Working Memory
  48. Describe Treisman’s attenuation theory 
    •Early/intermediate selection model

    •Proposed that analysis of a stimulus proceeds through a hierarchy

    •Physical analysis à semantic analysis

    •Analysis depends on processing capacity
  49. Describe Broadbent’s model
    • Selective attention
    • •The ability to attend to one stimulus while ignoring others
  50. Define divided attention
    •The ability to respond simultaneously to multiple tasks or multiple task demands

    Factors that affect divided attention:

    •Practice (at one of the tasks)

    •The difficulty of the task (task load)

    •The type of task
  51. What is covert attention
    • Attention without eye movements
    • •Precueing: directing attention without moving the eyes

    • •Participants respond faster to a light at an expected
    • location than at an unexpected location

    •Even when eyes kept fixed
  52. What is location based attention
    • covert visual attention
    • •Location-based: moving attention from one place to another
  53. What is Feature Integration Theory (FIT)
    Read about me........
  54. Illusory Conjunctions
    •  psychological concepts where participants accidentally combine features of two objects into one object.
    • Google Images
  55. Describe Sensory Memory
    • •Short-lived sensory memory registers all or most information that hits our visual receptors
    • •Iconic Memory: brief sensory memory for visual stimuli

    •Echoic Memory: sensory memory for auditory stimuli

    •Persistence of vision/sound: retention of the perception of light/sound in your mind
  56. Describe the Modal Model of Memory
    • 3 modes of memory based on capacity (how much), coding (what is stored), and duration (how long)–
    • sensory memory• several seconds at most–
    • short-term memory• a minute or two at most• indefinitely if continually rehearsed–
    • long-term memory• from minutes to a lifetime
  57. How is short term memory influenced by chunking
    •Chunking:  grouping singular entities into larger items

    • –Chunk= a collection of elements that are strongly associated with one another butare weakly associated with elements in other chunks
    • Allows you to remember more. Student was trained from remembering 7 things to 79 things
  58. What is the Recency Effect
    –Learning greater at the end of the list
  59. What is the primacy effect
    •Due to extra rehearsal time given to words at the beginning of the list

    –They are being rehearsed throughout the whole list
  60. What is the difference between implicit and explicit memory
    • •Explicit (declarative)
    • •Implicit (non-declarative)
  61. What is procedural memory
    • •Procedural  –Memory for skills,
    • practiced behaviors, routines
  62. What is rehearsal? What are types of rehearsal
    •We encode information through rehearsal

    –Maintenance rehearsal – simply repeating in your mind

    –Elaborative rehearsal – creating meaning or making connections with already stored info
  63. What is the Levels of processing theory
    •Says that memory depends on the way information is encoded
  64. What is Encoding specifity
    the encoding specificity principle provides a framework for understanding how contextual information affects memory and recall.
  65. What is State dependant learning
    •Retrieval is better if a person’s state during encoding is matched during testing

    •State can be many things:

    –Time of day

    –Mood

    –Drugs
  66. What is Transfer-appropriate processing
    •How you learned it

    •Retrieval performance depends on the match between encoding mode and retrieval mode
  67. What is Consolication
    •Transforms new memories from fragile state to more permanent state

    –Synaptic consolidation

    –Systems consolidation

    Sleep and Reactivation
  68. Define Autobiographical memory
    •Transforms new memories from fragile state to more permanent state

    –Synaptic consolidation

    –Systems consolidation

    • Sleep and
    • Reactivation
  69. What is Reminiscene Bump
    • •Enhanced memory  for adolescence and young
    • adulthood found in people over 40 years old 
  70. Define self image hypothesis
    Memory is enhanced for events that occur as a person’s self-image or life identity is being formed
  71. What is cognitive hypothesis
    –Encoding is better during periods of rapid change that are followed by stability

    –What does the cognitive hypothesis predict if change happened later in life? How could you test this?
  72. What is the Cultural life script hypothesis
    •Cultural life-script hypothesis

    Life story vs. cultural life script
  73. Define Flashbulb memory
    •Memories for circumstances surrounding how a person heard about a highly emotional event

    –Positive or Negative

    –Very detailed and vivid, as if a picture was taken of the event
  74. Decribe the Misinformation effect
    –Misleading postevent information (MPI)
  75. Define Concept
    •mental representation used for a variety of cognitive functions
  76. Define the Definitional approach to categorization
    •Determine category membership based on whether the object meets the definition of the category
  77. Define the Prototype approach to categories
    –An average of category members encountered in the past 
  78. Define the Exemplar approach to categories
    •Concept is represented by multiple examples  (rather than a single prototype)

    •Examples are actual category members  (not abstract averages)

    • •To
    • categorize, compare the new item to stored examples 
  79. Define Semantic Network, what are links and nodes
    –Networks consist of nodes that are connected by links

    • –Each node represents a category or concept, and concepts are placed in the network so related concepts are connected
    • –Node= each concept in the network

    –Link= the connection between two concepts
  80. What is inheritance mean in the context of a semantic network and how does this achieve cognitive economy
    •It is not efficient to store “can fly” at each bird’s node

    •It is more efficient to store “can’t fly” for the exceptions

    Inheritance
  81. What is the relationship between distance between nodes and reaction time? 
    •The longer the distance between concepts, the longer time for cognition
  82. Define Spreading activation
    –Concepts that receive activation are primed and more easily accessed from memory
  83. What is a conectionist network
    Learning process that creates a network capable of handling a wide range of inputs
  84. Define mental imagery
    •experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input
  85. Parsing
    •Two Approaches to understanding parsing mechanism

    • –Syntax
    • 1st –group phrases based on structural principles

    –Syntax and semantics at the same time – interactionist approach
  86. Descrive the situational model
    mental representation of text consists of the situation in terms of the events being described in the story
  87. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: 
    language influences thought
  88. What is insight
    •Sudden realization of a problem’s solution
  89. Define Operators
    rules specify which moves are allowed and which are not
  90. What is the Problem space composed of
    –Initial state

    –All possible intermediate state(s)

    –Goal state
  91. Define Surface Feature
    specific element that makes up a problem
  92. Define structural feature
    underlying principles that govern the solution
  93. Define inductive reasoning
    •Make probabilistic statements based on evidence
  94. What is the difference between truth and validity
    •In syllogisms, truth and validity are two separate things

    –True = something is true in the real world

    –Valid = the conclusion follows logically from the premises

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