Cognitive Psychology Final Exam
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What is the Information-Processing Approach
This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment. The mind’s machinery includes attention mechanisms for bringing information in, working memory for actively manipulating information, and long term memory for passively holding information so that it can be used in the future.
What is the Early Selection Model
Proposes that a filter identifies the attended message based on its physical features
What is "levels-of-processing theory?"
Theory that states, "Memory depends on deep and shallow encoding."
What is Spatial Representation
Kosslyn's mental scanning experiments indicated this type of representation for mental imagery.
What is Restructuring
Gestalt Psychologists would calll changing the problem's representation
Processing that begins with receptors (senses)
What is location based attention
Attention directed to a specific place.
What is Encoding Specificity
States that we encode information along with its context. Suggests that you study in a similar environment to which you will be tested.
What is Propositional Representation
A representation in which relationships can be represented by abstract symbols.
What are the Inititial, Goal, and all Intermediate states?
The problem space consists of all of these.
What is the Likelihood Principle?
We perceive the object that is most likely to have caused the pattern of stimuli we have received
Components of Modal Memory
Sensory, short term, and long term memory
What is Reminiscence Bump?
The enhanced memory for adolescence and young adulthood found in people over 40.
-Consists of a phone or group of phones.
-If you change the phoneme you change the word. Phones in a phoneme can be swapped without changing the meaning of a word. CK vs K or Cat vs Kat.
Goat has 3 phonemes or "sounds"- G, OA, and T, and "PH" is one phoneme.
What is a Valid Argument?
The conclusiong follows logically from the premises
What is a Double Disociation?
Two functions [of the brain] are independant and involve different mechanisms
What is the Prototype Approach
membership to category is determined by comparing the object to an average of the category
What is the Interactionist Approach to Parsing
While reading, meaning is taken into account.
Wason four-card problem is this
Dendrite, Axon, and Cell Body
Key Structures of the neuron. Clarification needed.
Episodic and Semantic Memory
The two types of declaritive memory. Clarification needed
What is a Concept?
A concept is represented by a node. Clarification needed
What is the Situation Model
States that texts are represented in terms of the events and people being described, not information about phrases, sentences and paragraphs.
People tend to think of things they remember easily as more important or probable than things they don't remember as easily.
What is Behaviorism
John Watson proposed to eliminate the mind as a topic of study. Instead, study directly observable behavior.
- The mental processes involved in perception, attention,
- memory, language, problem solving, reasoning, and decision making
How can the mind be studied scientifically?
Mental processes cannot be observed directly, but can be inferred by measuring behavior.
Define Cognitive Neuroscience
Study the biological foundations of mental phenomena.
Describe Action Potential
- –Relative difference in charge between the inside and outside of the neuron
- - On or Off
- - Strength is derrived from frequency
Describe Specificity Coding (theory)
Representation of a specific stimulus by firing of specifically tuned neurons specialized to just respond to a specific stimulus
Describe Distributed Coding
Representation by a pattern of firing across a number of neurons
- Not grandmother cell
Physiological Measure of the Brain: Single Neuron
Studying single neurons with the use of micro electrodes
Determine which stimulus a single neuron responds to
Physiological Measure of the Brain: ERP (Event-related Potential)
- •ERP - the brain’s electrical response to an
- event (stimuli)
•Stronger response to unexpected stimuli
•When, not where
Physiological Measure of the Brain: PET (Positron Emission Tomography)
•Radioactive tracer is injected into bloodstream
•PET apparatus measures the amount of tracer in each location of the brain
Measure of where in the brain, not when.
Physiological Measure of the Brain: fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
•Measures blood flow without radioactive tracers (like PET)
•Uses magnetic field to measure blood flow
Measure of where in the brain, not when,
Physiological Measure of the Brain: Brain Lesioning
- •Intentional damage or removal of part of the
- •Allows us to see which cognitive impairments
- are associated with certain brain areas
Physiological Measure of the Brain: Neuropsychology
•Study of the behavioral effects of brain damage in humans (Case Studies)
–Brain damage caused by accidents or a stroke
•ie. Phineas Gage, rail spike
–Perception may start with the brain: knowledge, experience, expectations
–Knowledge driven processing
Helmholtz’s Theory Of Unconscious Inference (~1860)
Likelihood principle: we perceive the world in the way that is “most likely” based on our past experiences
Describe the 7 Gestalt laws of perceptual organization.
Perceptual organization: grouping of elements to create larger objects.
- 1. Law of Good Continuation: lines tend to be seen
- as following the smoothest path
- 2. Law of Good Figure (simplicity or prägnanz): Every
- stimulus pattern is seen so the resulting structure is as simple as possible
3. Law of Similarity
: Similar things appear grouped together
: We group things that are near to one another
: We add missing elements to complete a figure
6. Law of Common Fate
: Things moving in the same direction appear to be grouped together
7. Law of Familiarity
: Things are more likely to form groups if the groups appear familiar or meaningful
Perceptual Heuristics: Physical Regularities
•Light-from-above heuristic- We perceive shadows as specific information about depth and distance
- •Size Constancy – objects maintain
- their size no matter how close or far they are
- •Shape Constancy – objects maintain
- their shapes no matter what their orientation
- •Brightness Constancy – objects
- maintain the same brightness no matter what the lighting
Describe the Dissociation Procedure in neuropsychology.
•Single dissociation–One function is lost, another remains
Example: Monkey A has damage to temporal lobe. This monkey is no longer able to identify objects (what) but can still identify locations (where)
Therefore, what and where rely on different mechanisms, although they may not operate totally independent of one another
•Double dissociation–Requires two individuals with different damage and opposite deficits
•Example: Monkey A with temporal lobe damage has intact where but impaired what; Monkey B with parietal lobe damage has intact what but impaired where
–Therefore, what and where streams must have different mechanisms AND operate independently of one another
"What Stream" and "Where Stream"
What: Damaged temporal lobe- This monkey has impaired what, but can still identify locations (where)
Where: Damaged parietal lobe- has intact what but impaired where
Describe Early Selection Model
•According to the Filter Model, sensory information is filtered out based on physical characteristics before meaning is attached
•Early selection model
•Supported by previous findings
Describe Late Selection Model
•Alternative to filter models of auditory attention
•All information gets processed for meaning
Describe Treisman’s attenuation theory
•Early/intermediate selection model
•Proposed that analysis of a stimulus proceeds through a hierarchy
•Physical analysis à semantic analysis
•Analysis depends on processing capacity
Describe Broadbent’s model
- Selective attention
- •The ability to attend to one stimulus while ignoring others
Define divided attention
•The ability to respond simultaneously to multiple tasks or multiple task demands
Factors that affect divided attention:
•Practice (at one of the tasks)
•The difficulty of the task (task load)
•The type of task
What is covert attention
- Attention without eye movements
- •Precueing: directing attention without moving the eyes
- •Participants respond faster to a light at an expected
- location than at an unexpected location
•Even when eyes kept fixed
What is location based attention
- covert visual attention
- •Location-based: moving attention from one place to another
What is Feature Integration Theory (FIT)
Read about me........
- psychological concepts where participants accidentally combine features of two objects into one object.
- Google Images
Describe Sensory Memory
- •Short-lived sensory memory registers all or most information that hits our visual receptors
- •Iconic Memory: brief sensory memory for visual stimuli
•Echoic Memory: sensory memory for auditory stimuli
•Persistence of vision/sound: retention of the perception of light/sound in your mind
Describe the Modal Model of Memory
- 3 modes of memory based on capacity (how much), coding (what is stored), and duration (how long)–
- sensory memory• several seconds at most–
- short-term memory• a minute or two at most• indefinitely if continually rehearsed–
- long-term memory• from minutes to a lifetime
How is short term memory influenced by chunking
•Chunking: grouping singular entities into larger items
- –Chunk= a collection of elements that are strongly associated with one another butare weakly associated with elements in other chunks
- Allows you to remember more. Student was trained from remembering 7 things to 79 things
What is the Recency Effect
–Learning greater at the end of the list
What is the primacy effect
•Due to extra rehearsal time given to words at the beginning of the list
–They are being rehearsed throughout the whole list
What is the difference between implicit and explicit memory
- •Explicit (declarative)
- •Implicit (non-declarative)
What is procedural memory
- •Procedural –Memory for skills,
- practiced behaviors, routines
What is rehearsal? What are types of rehearsal
•We encode information through rehearsal
–Maintenance rehearsal – simply repeating in your mind
–Elaborative rehearsal – creating meaning or making connections with already stored info
What is the Levels of processing theory
•Says that memory depends on the way information is encoded
What is Encoding specifity
the encoding specificity principle provides a framework for understanding how contextual information affects memory and recall.
What is State dependant learning
•Retrieval is better if a person’s state during encoding is matched during testing
•State can be many things:
–Time of day
What is Transfer-appropriate processing
•How you learned it
•Retrieval performance depends on the match between encoding mode and retrieval mode
What is Consolication
•Transforms new memories from fragile state to more permanent state
Sleep and Reactivation
Define Autobiographical memory
•Transforms new memories from fragile state to more permanent state
What is Reminiscene Bump
- •Enhanced memory for adolescence and young
- adulthood found in people over 40 years old
Define self image hypothesis
Memory is enhanced for events that occur as a person’s self-image or life identity is being formed
What is cognitive hypothesis
–Encoding is better during periods of rapid change that are followed by stability
–What does the cognitive hypothesis predict if change happened later in life? How could you test this?
What is the Cultural life script hypothesis
•Cultural life-script hypothesis
Life story vs. cultural life script
Define Flashbulb memory
•Memories for circumstances surrounding how a person heard about a highly emotional event
–Positive or Negative
–Very detailed and vivid, as if a picture was taken of the event
Decribe the Misinformation effect
–Misleading postevent information (MPI)
•mental representation used for a variety of cognitive functions
Define the Definitional approach to categorization
•Determine category membership based on whether the object meets the definition of the category
Define the Prototype approach to categories
–An average of category members encountered in the past
Define the Exemplar approach to categories
•Concept is represented by multiple examples (rather than a single prototype)
•Examples are actual category members (not abstract averages)
- categorize, compare the new item to stored examples
Define Semantic Network, what are links and nodes
–Networks consist of nodes that are connected by links
- –Each node represents a category or concept, and concepts are placed in the network so related concepts are connected
- –Node= each concept in the network
–Link= the connection between two concepts
What is inheritance mean in the context of a semantic network and how does this achieve cognitive economy
•It is not efficient to store “can fly” at each bird’s node
•It is more efficient to store “can’t fly” for the exceptions
What is the relationship between distance between nodes and reaction time?
•The longer the distance between concepts, the longer time for cognition
Define Spreading activation
–Concepts that receive activation are primed and more easily accessed from memory
What is a conectionist network
Learning process that creates a network capable of handling a wide range of inputs
Define mental imagery
•experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input
•Two Approaches to understanding parsing mechanism
- 1st –group phrases based on structural principles
–Syntax and semantics at the same time – interactionist approach
Descrive the situational model
mental representation of text consists of the situation in terms of the events being described in the story
language influences thought
What is insight
•Sudden realization of a problem’s solution
rules specify which moves are allowed and which are not
What is the Problem space composed of
–All possible intermediate state(s)
Define Surface Feature
specific element that makes up a problem
Define structural feature
underlying principles that govern the solution
Define inductive reasoning
•Make probabilistic statements based on evidence
What is the difference between truth and validity
•In syllogisms, truth and validity are two separate things
–True = something is true in the real world
–Valid = the conclusion follows logically from the premises
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