A & P Final Lee
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Atoms, the smallest stable units of matter, can combine to form molecules with complex shapes. Level Of Organization?
The Chemical or Molecular Level
Molecules can interact to form various types of organells, each type of which has specific functions. What Level of Organization?
The Cellullar Level
A group of cells working together to perform one or more specific functions. What Level of Organization?
The Tissue Level
Consist of two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions. What Level of oganization?
The Organ Level
A group of organs interacting to perform a particular function forms as a What?
The Existance of a stable environment within the human body .
Failure to maintain homeostasis soon leads to what?
Illness, or even Death
The function of homeostatic regulation is always to keep the characteristics of the internal invironment ___ ___ ___.
Within certain Limits
Homeostatic mechanisms are composed of three parts which are?
- 1. A receptor
- 2. A control center
- 3. An Effector
A sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change is a ___.
Recieves and processes the information suplied by the receptor, and sends out commands.
A Control center
A cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center and whos activity either opposes or enhances the stimulas.
Most Homeostatic regulatory mechanisms involve ___ ___.
A response that counteracts with a stimulas.
In initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the original change in conditions.
Atoms or molecules that carry an electric charge, either positive oor negative.
Positively charged Ions are called?
Negatively charged Ions are Called ...
Chemical bonds created by the electrical attraction between anions and cations.
Any structure consisting of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
A pure chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements, regardless of the type of bond joining them.
In the Formation of an Ionic Bond:
- 1. Atom loses one or more electrons and becomes a cation with a (+) charge.
- 2. Another atom gains those same electrons and becomes an anion with a (-) Charge
- 3. Attraction between the opposite charges then draws the two Ions together
Some atoms can complete their outer electron shells by sharing electrons with other atoms. Such sharing creates ___ ____.
The Sharing of one pair of electrons is ...
A Single covalent Bond
A stable electron configuration by sharing two pairs of electrons is called a what?
Double Covalent Bond
Many covalent bonds involve an equal sharing of electrons called what?
A Nonpolar Covalent Bond
Covalent bonds involving different types of atoms may instead involve an unequal sharing of electrons, because the elements differ in how strongly they attract electrons. An unequal sharing of electrons creates a what
Polar Covalent Bond
Covalent and ionic bonds tie atoms together to form molecules and/or compounds. Other camparatively weak forces also act between adjacent molecules, and even between atoms within a large molecule. The most important of these weak attractive forces is ...
The Hydrogen Bond
Hydrogen bonds are too weak to create molecules, but...
They can change molecular shapes or pull molecules together
The Hydrogen bonding that occurs between water molecules at the waters surgace and slows the rate of evaporation while creating the phenomenon Known as ...
Body Fluid pH is Fital for ...
Is defined as the negatinve logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in Moles per liter.
pH of a solution
Solustion that contains equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
Solution that contains more hydrogen ions than Hydroxide ions is said to be
A solution that has more Hydroxide Ions than Hydrogen ions is said to be
Any solute that dissociates in solution and releases hydrogen Ions.
A solute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution.
Compounds that stabalize the pH of a solution by removing or replacing hydrogen ions.
A reaction that breaks a molecule into smaller fragments
One of the bonds in a complex molecule is broken, and the components of a water molecule are added to the resulting Fragments
When a covalent bond is broken, it releases kinetic energy that can perform work. By Harnessing the energy released in this way, cells perform vital functions such as growth, movement, and reproduction.
A reaction that assembles smaller molecules into larger molecules.
The formation of a complex molecule by the removal of a water molecule
The synthesis of new molecules within the body's cells and tissues
Parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled around to produce new products
Two reactions are occurring simultaniously, one a synthesis, the other a decompossition.
The Amount of energy required to start a reaction is called ...
the Activation Energy
Your cells use special protiens called ___ to perform most of the complex synthesis and decomposition reactions in your body.
___ Promote chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements.
Enzymes belong to a class of substances called ___
Compounds that accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanantly changed or consumed.
An enzyme affects only ______ and not _____
- The Rate of the reaction,
- the direction of the reaction or products formed.
Protiens are formed from ___ and contain ___, ___, ___, and ___
- Amino Acids
How many different amino acids occur in significant quantities in the body.
A typical protien contains how many amino acids?
Each amino acid consists of 5 components:
- 1. A central Carbon Atom
- 2. A hydrogen Atom
- 3. An Amino Group
- 4. A carboxyl Group
- 5. An R Group
A covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another is known as ...
A Peptide Bond.
Large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen nitrogen, and Phosphorus
___ ___Consists of one or two long chains that are formed by dehydration synthesis. where the individual subunits are called ____
- A nucleic acid,
Adenine and guanine are double-ringed molecules called ..
Uracil only occurs in ___ and Thymine occurs only in___
Our cells have 3 types of RNA:
- 1. Messenger RNA
- 2. Transfer RNA
- 3. Ribosomal RNA
The combinations Adenine - ____ and Cytosine-_____ are known as complementary base pairs.
A barrier that isolates the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid
The Plasma Membrane
Are Cells Self sufficient?
- Answer: No
- Read this: Each Day they require nutrients to provide the energy they need to stay alive and function normally. They also Generate waste Products that must be eliminated.
The property of the plasma membrane that determines precisely which substances can enter or leave the cytoplasm.
Plasma Membranes are called...
The net movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentrations is called...
The difference between the high and low concentrations is a ____ _____
Diffusion is important in body fluids, because it tends to .....
Eliminate local concentration gradients
5 important factors that influence Diffusion rates include:
- 1. Distance
- 2. Molecule Size
- 3. Temperature
- 4. Concentration Gradient
- 5. Electrical Forces
An Ion or molecule can diffuse across a plasma membrane only by 2 ways:
1. Crossing the lipid portiion of the membrane.
2. Passing through a membrane Channel
The diffusion through the lipid portions of the Plasma membrane is called...
The passing through the Plasma membrane through a membrane channel is called ...
Channels that remain open and allow the passage of ions across the plasma membrane.
Leak Channels or Passive Channels
The net diffusion of water across a membrane is called ....
Always use the term ____ for the movement of water and ____ for the movement of solutes.
3 Basic Characteristics of Osmosis:
1. It's the diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrance
2. The Membrane is Freely permeable to water and not solutes.
3. The Direction of Osmosis goes toward the area of higher solutes concentration bc that's where water concentration is lower.
Osmosis eliminates solute concentration differences ___ ____ than solute diffusion
Water molecules cross a membrane through abundant water channels called ______ which exceed in the number of solute channels
The total concentration in an aqueous solution is the solution's ....
Osmolarity or Osmotic concentration
When we describe the effects of various osmotic solutions on cells, we usually use the term _____
A solution that does not cause an osmotic flow into or out of a cell is called ....
An Isotonic Solution
a solution that water will flow into a cell and causes it to swell up like a balloon.
When a blood cell busts releasing its contents
A Cell in a ____ Solution will lose water by osmosis.
The Shrinking of blood cells is called ...
Substances can be passively transported across the membrane by carrier proteins in a process called ...
- Facilitated Diffusion
- You Say: A type of Carrier-Meditated Transport
The Molecue to betransported in facilitated diffusion must first bind to a ____ _____ on the carrier protein.
When the rates of cell division and growth exceed the rate of cell death, a tissue begins to enlage. This is called a
- You Say: Or Neoplasm
a tumor where the cells usually remain within the epithelium or a connective tissue capsule
Cells in this type of tumor no longer respond to normal control mechanisms, and do not remain confined within the epithelium or a connective tissue capsule.
The tumor of origin is called the ___ ___ and the spreading process is called ____
- 1. Primary Tumor
- 2. Invasion
When malignant cells travel to distant tissues and organs and establish secondary tumors the dispersion is called ...
An illness characterized by mutations that disrupt normal control mechanisms and produce potentially malignant cells.
In most cases, all the cells in the tumor are the ___ _____ of a single malignant cell.
Cells often become malignant when a _____ occurs in a gene involved with cell growth, differentiation, or division. and the modified genes are called ______
Cells that are responsible for the transport of oxygen in the blood.
Red Blood Cells
Red Blood Cells account for roughly___ % of whole blood and gives it its color
Blood cells that help defend the body from infection and disease.
White Blood Cells
5 Types of white blood cells:
- 1. Monocytes
- 2. Lyphocytes
- 3. Eosinophils
- 4. Neutrophils
- 5. Basophils
White blood cell that is a phagocyte and similar to the free macrophages in other tissues
White blood cell that is uncommon in the blood, but are the dominant cell type in the lymph
Phagocytes that promote inflammation much like the mast cells in other connective tissues. 3 Types of White blood Cells
Membrane enclosed packets of cytoplasm that function in blood clotting
Tissue Membranes are physical barriers of four types:
- 1. Mucous
- 2. Serous
- 3. Cutaneous
- 4. Synovial
Membranes that line passage-ways and chambers that communicate with the Exterior, including those in the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts.
- Mucous Membranes
- or Mucosae
Membranes that line the sealed, internal subdivisions of the ventral body cavity which are cavities that are not open to the exterior.
a ___ ____ is a physical barrier
Covers the surface of the body. It consists of a stratified squamous epithelium and a layer of areolar tissue reinforced by underlying dense irregular connective tissue.
The Cutaneous Membrane
Lines the joint cavity, and consists of an extensive area of areolar tissue containinga matrix of interwoven collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins.
Skeletal muscle fibers are produced through the divisions of what cells?
Skeletal Muscle tissue can at least partially repair itself after an injury. True or False?
Skeletal muscle tissues do not usually contract unless .....
and the nervous system provides voluntary control over their activities. Thus Skeletal muscle fiber is called ...
- Stimulated by nerves
- Striated Voluntary muscle
Cardiac muscle is only located in the heart and consists of a branching network of interconnected muscle cells occurring at specialized regions called ...
Cardiac Muscle tissue has very limited ability to repair itself. True or False?
At an intercalated disc, the membranes are locked together by 3 things:
- 1. Desmosomes
- 2. proteoglycans
- 3. Gap Junctions
Tissue that is located in the walls of blood vessels, around hollow organs such as the urinary bladder, and in layers around the respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, and reproductive tract.
Smooth Muscle tissue
Smooth muscle cell is a ____ ___ -shaped cell with ____ ends and a ___ ____ nucleus.
- Small Spindle
- Single, oval
Smooth muscle cells can devide after injury, hence, smooth muscle tissue can regenerate after an injury. True or False?
Specialized cardiac cells called ____ _____ establish a regular rate of contraction.
Although the nervous system can alter the rate of pacemaker cell activity, it does not provide voluntary control over individual cardiac muscle cells. Therefore, cardiac muscle is called ____ ____ ____
Striated Involuntary Muscle
The Nervous system usually does not provide voluntary control over smooth muscle contractions, thus smooth muscle is known as ....
Nonstriated involuntary muscle
What are functions of skeletal muscles?
- 1. Moves and Stabalizes the position of the skeleton
- 2. Guards entrances and exits of dige.. resp... & urina Tract
- 3. Generates heat
- 4. protects internal organs
What are 2 main functions of Cardiac Muscle tissue?
- 1. Circulates blood
- 2. Maintains blood (hydrostatic) Pressure
Functions of Smooth Muscle tissue.
- 1. Moves food, urine and reproductive tract secretions
- 2. controls diameter of respiratory pathways
- 3. regulates the diameter of blood vessels
the skin contains two types of sweat glands.
- 1. Apocrine Sweat Glands
- 2. Merocrine Sweat Glands
Another Name For sweat glands is ....
In the Armpits, around the nipples, and in the pubic region, these sweat glands secrete their products ....
- 1. Apocrine Sweat Glands
- 2. On the surface of the skin
The sweat produced by ____ ____ ____ is a nutrient source for bacteria, which intensifies its odor.
Apocrine Sweat Glands
Coiled, Tubular glands that discharge their secretions directly onto the skin are called ...
- Merocrine Sweat Glands
- Or Eccrine Sweat Glands
The Functions of Merocrine Sweat Gland Activity Include what 3 functions?
- 1. Cooling the surface of the skin to reduce temperature
- 2. Excreting Water and Electrolytes
- 3. Providing protection from Environmental Hazards
Sweat from Merocrine Sweat glands dilute harmful chemicals in contact with the skin and discourages the growth of microorganisms in 2 ways:
1. Flushing them from the surface or making it difficult for them to adhere to the epidermal surface.
2. Through the action of Dermicidin, a small peptide that has powerful antibiotic properties.
What are the 5 Primary Functions of the Skeletal System?
- 1. Support
- 2. Storage of Minerals and lipids
- 3. Blood cell production (in the red bone marrow)
- 4. Protection
- 5. Leverage
Mature bone cells that make up most of the cell population and occupies a lacuna.
A pocket sandwiched between layers of the matrix of bone is called a ____
Layers of matrix in the bone are called _____
Osteocytes have 2 main functions.
1. Maintain the protein and mineral content of the surrounding matrix by dissolving and rebuilding the matrix
2. Participate in the Repair of damaged bone by converting into a less specialized cell (Osteoblast, or Osteoprogenitor)
Type of bone cell that produces new bone matrix.
This type of process is called ____
- 1. Osteoblast
- 2. Ossification
- Or Osteogenesis
Bone Cell that makes and releases the proteins and other organic components of the matrix.
Osteoblasts assist in elevating local concentrations of ___ ____ above its sollubility limit, thereby triggering the deposition of _____ salts in the organic matrix.
- 1. Calcium Phosphate
- 2. Calcium
Osteocytes develop from Osteoblasts that have ...
Become completely surrounded by bone matrix.
Stem cells divide to produce daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblast.
Type of bone cell...
Type of bone cell that maintains population of osteoblasts and is important in the repair of a fracture.
Bone cells that remove and recycle bone matrix.
Osteoclasts are derived from the same stem cells that produce ___ and ___
Acids and proteolytic enzymes secreted by Osteoclasts disolve the matix and release the stored minerals in the process called ...
The process of Depositing calcium salts is called ...
The process where bone replaces existing cartilage.
The process where bone developes directly from Mesenchyme (loosely organized embryonic tissue) or fibrous connective tissue.
During development, most bones originate as ____ _____ that are miniature models of the corresponding bones of the adult skeleton. These cartilage models are gradually replaced by bone through the process of ___ ____.
- 1. Hyaline cartilages
- 2. Endochondrial Ossification
This Process begins when osteoblasts differentiate within a mesenchymal or fibrous conective tissue.
It is also called _____ _____ because it normally occurs in the deeper layers of the dermis.
1. Intramembranous ossification
2. Dermal ossification
Examplea of dermal bones are the flat bones of the ____, the ____ and the _____
- 1. Skull
- 2. Mandible
- 3. Clavicle
When the thin filaments are sliding toward the center of each sarcomere, alongside the thick filaments.
Sliding Filament theory.
What 4 steps happen during the sliding filament theory?
- 1. The H & I bands of the sarcomeres get smaller
- 2. the zones of overlap get larger
- 3. The Z- lines move closer together
- 4. The width of the A Band remains constant.
Communication between the nervous system and a skeletal muscle fiber occurs at the ....
The link between the generation of an action potential in the sarcolemma and the start of a muscle contraction is called ....
During Excitation contraction coupling, ___ is the lock that keeps the active sites inaccessable and ___ is the key.
Type of contraction where the tension rises and the skeletal muscle's length changes.
The muscle tension exceeds the load and the muscle shortens.
The peak tension developed is less than the loak, and the muscle elongates due to the contraction of another muscle or the force of gravity.
The muscle as a whole does not change length and the tension produced never exceeds the load.
Most Cells in the body generate ATP in what two ways?
- 1. Aerobic metabolism in the mitochondria
- 2. glycolysis in the cytoplasm.
Normally provides 95% of the ATP demands of a resting cell. In this Process, mitochondria absorb ____, ___, ___, and ____ from the cytoplasm
- 1. oxygen
- 2. ADP
- 3. Phosphate Ions
- 4. Organic substrates (pyruvate)
The Breakdown of glucose to pyruvate in the cytoplasm of a cell providing a net gain of 2 ATP molecules and generating 2 pyruvate Molecules from each glucose molecule.
Glycolysis is an anaerobic process because...
it does not require oxygen
The breakdown of 2 pyruvate molecules in the mitochondria generates ___ AtP Molecules.
Process that becomes an important source for energy when energy demands are at a maximum.
Changes in the transmembrane potential that cannot spread far from the site of stimulation.
Any shift from the resting potential toward a more positive potential is called
The Process of restoring the normal resting potential.
An increase in the negativity of the resting potential
Propagated chanes in the transmembrane potential that, once initiated, affect an entire excitable membrane.
And also Known as A _____ _____
- Action Potentials
- Nerve Impulse
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