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What BCS is used on Goats?
- BCS of 1(thin) to 5 (obese)
- Thin = 1 - 2.5
- Moderate= 3 - 4
- Fleshy = 4.5 - 5
What is the proper BCS of a doe at the start of breeding season?
BCS 3 - 3.5
What is the proper BCS ___ - ___ of does at the end of pregnancy?
BCS 3.5 - 4
What three production times are the most critical for nutrition in does?
- 1. Flushing
- 2. Late Gestation
- 3. Early Lactation
How does flushing in the meat goat nutritional program differt from the sheep program?
- Goats are flushed 30 days prior to breeding season vs. 2 weeks
- Goats are also continue to be flushed of 30 - 40 days after breeding unlike sheep which is 2 weeks
- The lengthy feeding period allows for adequate implantation of the fetuses in the uterus.
What are the advantages of flushing goats?
- Increased ovulation rate
- INcreased number of kids at birth
What is pregnancy toxemia?
When energy requirements exceed intake and animal is forced to mobolize lipid (fat) from body reserves. This mobilization results in lipid metabolism in the liver which produces ketones.
At the end of pregnancy in the doe, it is recommended that prgnant does do not exceed a body condition score of ____ to help prevent pregnancy toxemia?
What are the differences in feeding for late gestating does vs early lactating does based on tim eof year.
- Goats are seasonal breeders so they will be kidding in early spring.
- Forage during late gestation will be poor in quality so supplemental feeding will be required
- Early lactation will happen when warm season forages and browse are at their peak so less supplemental feeding of concentrates will be required.
How much colostrum does a newborn kid require?
- 10% of body weight or 0.5 lbs of colostrum
- about 1/2 pint
What is enterotoxemia?
- AKA. overeating disease
- associated with bacteria (clostridium perfringens) that can grow rapidly in the intestin and produce an endotoxin in response to high levels of starch in the diet
- Characterized by extreme pain and goats often die quickly from it.
- Vaccination: to control disease
Following weaning at ___ to ___ months of age, should do well on good quality pasture or supplemental hay plus approximately ____lbs of concentrate per day?
- Weaning 3 - 4 months of age
- 0.5 - 1 lb of grain mixture daily
It is desired that young does reach _____ to ____ % of their mature body weight by 12 months of age for proper reproductive performance.
65 - 70 % of mature body weight by 1 year
What are the 6 phases of dairy cow production?
- 1. Early Dry Period
- 2. Close-up (transition)
- 3. Freshing (0-14 days of lactation)
- 4. Early Lactation (Peak Lactation will occur)
- 5. Mid Lactation (Peak Dry Matter Intake)
- 6. Late Lactation
Early Dry Period is what Phase in the dairy cow cycle?
Close-up (transition) is what part of the dairy cow production cycle?
Freshing (0-14 days of lactation) is what part of the dairy cow production cycle?
Early Lactation (Peak Lactation will occur) is what phase in the dairy cow production cycle?
Mid Lactation (Peak Dry Matter Intake) is what phase in the dairy cow production cycle?
Late Lactation is what phase in the dairy cow production cycle?
What is the total mixed ration (TMR) concept of feedig dairy cows?
Roughage and concentrates are mixed together and fed at each feeding.
How does the TMR system differ from the older system used by many small dairies?
- 1. roughage and concentrates are mixed together for each feeding
- 2. Allows feeding to nutient requirements. or "Challenge Feeding"
What are the three milking groups fed with the TMR?
- High milk
- Low milk
What are the three dry groups within the TMR system?
- Just Dry
- Close up (transition)
What is the traditional feeding system for the dairy?
- Feed forage and grain separately
- feed forage outside
- grain protion fed in the milking parlor or other facility
What are the problems associated with the traditional dairy feeding system?
- Difficult: to properly match rouphage and grain intakes to optimize milk production.
- Rouphage and grain fed at different times contributing to digestive problems (acidosis)
What is challenge feeding?
- Feeding accordig to nutrient requirements
- Milking groups: freshing, high milk, low milk
- Dry groups: just dry, dry, close up (transition)