Biomed final review 10b

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Biomed final review 10b
2012-12-11 18:22:21
Biomed final review 10b

biomed final review 10b
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  1. Muscle Cell actoin potential
    A brief change in muscle cell voltage from negative to positive to negative. (normal is negative)
  2. True or False: Muscle cell action potetial, travels along the suface of muscle cells very quickly, probably more thea 100 m/sec or about the speed of and Indy reacecar.
  3. Remember that skeletal and __________ muscle have a series of _________ _________ (T tubules) that help the action potential penetrate deep into the muscle ________.
    cardiac, trasnvers tubules, fiber
  4. From Action ptential to Calcium release
    • Muscle cell action potenial travels along muscle surface
    • Penetrates into the interior of the muscle cell at transvers  tubules 
    • Remember T tubules arein a triad with two sacs of sarcoplaspic reticulum
    • Sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium into the cytoplasm of the muscle cell
  5. From Calcium Release to contraciton
    Calcium released from SR them binds to troponin; this moves tropomyosin aside and exposes binding sites for myosin on the actin filament
  6. True or False : The calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum interacts with a special protien, found only in muscle cells
  7. When calcium binds to the protein called troponin... changes shape, and pushes another specialized protien called tropomyosin
  8. Tropomyosin
    • "moving muscle protein"
    • normally covers a myosin binding site ont e actin molecule
    • keeps myosin (which wants to bind actin) from being able to reach its binding site on actin.
  9. When _________ is present, and troponin shoves topomyosin and topomyosin moves away from the _______ ______, myosin can grab _______.
    calcium, binding site, actin
  10. True or false : Stereograms don't work when projected on a screen.
    true.see objective 14 p.446- 447
  11. The cross-bridge cycle
    • 6a.  calcium binds to troponin; troponin choves tropomyosin; tropomyosin moves, exposing the myosin binding site on actin.
    • 6b.  Myosin brings a piggy backed molecule of ATP which is split to form ADP and the loose phosphate is released as myosin binds actin
    • 6c.  Power stroke: the shape of myosin changes; the head region flexes and moves the actin filament a tiny amount. this releases ADP and opens a site for ATP to bind again
    • 6d.  ATP binds, myosin release the actin filament, and the cycle can begin agian.
  12. Rigor mortis
    • A dead person uses up their ATPin a matterof minutes ore hours depending on the temperature, and muscles are "locked" in position
    • Later, again cepending on temperature , cirobes break  down muscle tissue to the point where muscle becomes loose again.
  13. What happens if ATP is absent from the cross-bridge cycle?
    • Myosin remains permanently bound to actin, muscles cannot move
    •    -miuscle stuck between step 5 and 1
    • Rigor motis results
    • Eventually , ensymes and microbes destroy muscle structure and corps becomes "loose" again.
  14. Three terms used to describe muscle anatomy.
    • origin
    • insertion
    • action
  15. Origin
    the place where a muscle "begins," where it attaches to a relatively immoveable point

    .-usually, this is proximal
  16. Insertion
    • the place where a muscle "ends," where it attaches to a moveable part.
    • -usually, this is distal
  17. Action
    what the muscle does when it contracts.
  18. Names of muscle function
    prime mover (agonist)


  19. Prime Mover (Agonist):
    muscle that does most of the work in the action being discussed.
  20. Antagonist:
    oppose action of agonist
  21. Synergist:
    aid agonist in creating movement.
  22. Fixator:
    stabalizes the muscle origin.

    Example: fixators in the shoulder girdle help to stop rotation of the shoulder joint during the motions of the triceps and biceps.