chapter 13 psychology

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  1. What is personality? 1) _______
    A) The distinctive mannerisms of a person
    B) A distinctive pattern of behavior, mannerisms, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual over time and across different situations
    C) The degree to which a person is outgoing and friendly
    D) A group of distinctive traits that change throughout one's life
  2. A ________ is a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling.

    A) temperament B) personality
    C) personality type D) trait
  3. The personality theory that is most embedded in popular culture is 3) _______
    A) social-cognitive learning theory. B) trait theory.
    C) psychodynamic theory. D) humanist theory.
  4. The first theory of psychodynamic personality was developed by 4) _______
    A) John Watson. B) Sigmund Freud.
    C) Carl Jung. D) Abraham Maslow.
  5. By the end of the twentieth century, biological research was demonstrating that about half of the variation in personality traits was due to 5) _______
    A) neurotransmitters. B) genetic variation.
    C) hormones. D) brain differences.
  6. Which of the following is NOT an emphasis shared by all psychodynamic theories? 6) _______
    A) An emphasis on unconscious thoughts and feelings from childhood that later form characteristic habits, conflicts, and often self-defeating behavior
    B) An emphasis on the role of early childhood experiences
    C) An emphasis on unconscious processes within the mind
    D) An emphasis on adult experiences as the cause of ongoing problems
  7. Which component of personality is present at birth and is the reservoir of unconscious psychological energies and the motives to avoid pain and obtain pleasure? 7) _______
    A) The libido B) The ego C) The id D) The superego
  8. Which component of personality is a referee between the needs of instinct and the demands of society? 8) _______
    A) The ego
    B) The superego
    C) The libido
    D) The id
  9. Which component of personality represents morality and parental authority? 9) _______
    A) The id
    B) The ego
    C) The superego
    D) The libido
  10. Jessie becomes furious when her favorite hockey player is intentionally hurt by an opponent. According to Freud's model of the mind, her "id" would unconsciously feel 10) ______
    A) "Thou shalt not kill." B) "I'm so angry I could kill that player!"
    C) "I'm going to tear this program in half!" D) "What, me angry? I never get angry!"
  11. According to Freud, the developmental acquisition of the personality components begins with the ________, then the ________, and finally the ________.
    A) libido, superego, ego
    B) superego, libido, ego
    C) id, ego, superego
    D) ego, id, superego
  12. A ________ is a strategy that denies or distorts reality, but protects us from conflict and anxiety. 12) ______
    A) defense mechanism B) psychological dynamic
    C) libido D) trait
  13. During a grade school field trip, Ryan and his friends were running down a hill when he stepped on a snake. He was unharmed but shaken by the experience. When one of his friends mentioned the incident months later, Ryan could not remember running down the hill that day. Freud would say that this is an example of ______

    A) sublimation.
    B) reaction formation.
    C) repression.
    D) displacement.
  14. Vito is angry when the school bus driver blames Vito for misbehaving when it actually was the child behind him who had been acting up. As he gets off the bus, he kicks the bus tire. Freud would say that Vito is unconsciously using the defense mechanism of 14) ______

    A) projection.
    B) displacement.
    C) repression.
    D) denial.
  15. Which defense mechanism involves transforming an anxiety-producing emotion into its opposite? ______
    A) Regression
    B) Rationalization
    C) Repression
    D) Reaction formation
  16. Which defense mechanism involves reversion to an earlier phase of psychological development? 16) ______
    A) Reaction formation B) Rationalization
    C) Repression D) Regression
  17. ________ occurs when a person's own unacceptable or threatening feelings are repressed and then attributed to someone else.
    A) Denial B) Displacement C) Projection D) Sublimation
  18. ________ occurs when people refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening, that they have a problem, or that they are feeling an unacceptable emotion. 18) ______
    A) Sublimation B) Displacement C) Projection D) Denial
  19. ________ occurs when displacement serves a higher cultural or socially useful purpose. 19) ______
    A) Projection B) Regression
    C) Reaction formation D) Sublimation
  20. Which psychosexual stage is most crucial for the formation of personality, according to Freud? 20) ______
    A) The anal stage B) The phallic stage
    C) The oral stage D) The genital stage
  21. ________ occurs if the frustration, conflict, and anxiety associated with a particular stage are not properly resolved. 21) ______
    A) Fixation B) Mental illness C) Regression D) Denial
  22. What are the stages of psychosexual development in order beginning from birth? 22) ______
    A) Oral, anal, genital, latency, phallic B) Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
    C) Anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital D) Oral, anal, latency, genital, phallic
  23. Four-year-old Lindsey squeezes between her Mommy and Daddy as they sit together on the couch. She cuddles her Daddy but refuses to kiss her Mommy. This illustrates which Freudian concept? 23) ______
    A) Oedipus complex B) Sublimation
    C) Regression D) Superego
  24. When boys are in the Oedipal stage, according to Freud, 24) ______
    A) they are distressed because when they grow up they won't be able to have babies.
    B) they do not have a powerful motivation to give up their Oedipal feelings for their mothers.
    C) they are distressed to learn that they can never nurse a baby like Mommy can.
    D) they are horrified by naked girls, because girls have had their penises cut off.
  25. According to Carl Jung, part of the legacy of human history is a 25) ______
    A) penis envy shared by all women, consisting of universal memories of the "Powerful Father."
    B) collective unconscious shared by all human beings containing universal memories, symbols, and images.
    C) womb envy shared by all men, consisting of universal symbols of the "Earth Mother."
    D) liturgical unconscious shared by all human beings containing symbols from each of the major world religions.
  26. Archetypes are 26) ______
    A) universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, and dreams.
    B) strategies to succeed in the world that are not explicitly taught.
    C) habitual ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
    D) beliefs about how your own mind and the minds of other people work.
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chapter 13 psychology
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