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What type(s) of motion does matter in the solid state exhibit?
What type(s) of motion does matter in the liquid state exhibit?
Rotational & Vibrational
What type(s) of motion does matter in the gaseous state exhibit?
Translational, Rotational & Vibrational
Define Chemical Properties & give an ex.
- breaking of bonds between atoms and them forming new bonds between these same atoms
- ex. combustion
define physical properties & give an ex.
- changes in bonds between molecules not between atoms within molecules.
- ex. Melting
What are Dipole Attractions & an ex.
- when a molecule has covalent bonds with a significant electronegativity difference
- results in high melting and boiling points
- ex. HCl, H2S
What are Hydrogen Bonds & 1 ex.
- when a molecule has covalent bonds with a very significant electronegativity difference (N,O,F)
- very high melting and boiling points
- ex. HF
What are Van der Waals Forces (L.D)
- when a molecule has covalent bonds with very low electroneg difference or none at all
- low melting and boiling points
What are Covalent Bonds & an ex.
- Non-M bond with Non-M
- low electroneg difference
- localized bonding ex. CH4
What are Ionic bonds and an ex.
- Non-M bond with M
- higher electroneg difference then covalent bonds
- results in crystals of oppositely charged units
- ex. NaCl
What are Metallic Bonds & an ex.
- M - M
- extremely low electroneg, therefore el- flow through the crystal
- results in crystals which conduct and are malleable
- ex. Fe
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