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List and describe the six functions of bones
- 1) supports soft tissue and provides attachment for skeletal muscle
- 2) Protects Organs
- 3) Assist in movement
- 4) Stores and releases minerals
- 5) Contains red bone marrow-makes red blood cells
- 6) Contains yellow marrow-stores triglycerides
list and describe function of the four cells found in bone
- 1) Osteogenic cells-unspecialized stem cells
- 2) Osteoblasts-Bone building cells
- 3) Osteocytes- maintain daily metabolism
- 4) Osteoclasts-Carves out out bone
Developmental process of bone formation
What are the two methods/patterns of bone formation
- 1) intramembranous ossification
- 2) endochondral ossification
Describe the intramembranous process
- 1) development of the ossification center
- 2) calcification
- 3) foration of traberculae
- 4) development of the periosteum
What kind of bone go through intramembranous process?
1) flat bones of skull and most facial bones
Describe the endochondrial ossification process
- 1) development of the cartilage model
- 2) growth fo the cartilage model
- 3) development of primary ossification center
- 4) Development of medullary cavity
- 5) Development of secondary ossification center
- 6) Formation of artucular cartilage and the epiphyseal growth plate
What types of bones go through endochondral process
1) long bones, such as femur and tibia
How do bones grow in lengh?
1) bones grow in the epiphyseal plate by interstitial growth
What is the epiphyseal plate?
It's a layer of hyaline cartilage
List, describe and give function of 4 zones in epiphyseal plate
- 1) Resting cartilage-small scattered chondrocytes, they anchor epiphyseal plate
- 2) Proliferating Cartilage, stack of coins, chondrocytes divide.
- 3) Hypertrophic cartilage, large maturing chondrocytes
- 4) Calcified cartilage, nearest to diaphysis, new bone matrix is produced.
How do bones grow in thickness?
By appistional growth
Describe Appositional growth
osteoblast deposit new bone on outer surface, then bone tissue is destroyed by osteoclast in endosteum
Name the important hormones that regulate bone growth
Insulinlike Growth Factors
Describe the role of bone in calcium homeostasis
muscles and cells depend on a stable level of calcium ions to function properly, bones can give or take calcium from blood stream.
Which hormones regulate calcium homeostasis