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Which of the following is true about cells? A cell is ___
A) only found in multiples of 2
B) characteristic of eukaryotic but not prokaryotic
C) characteristic of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
D) always between 200 and 500 micrometers in diameter
C) Characteristic of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
Recall Pasteurs experiment on spontaneous generation. If he had just warmed the nutrient rich broth, rather than boiled it, what would have been the likely outcome of his experiment?
b) cells would have appeared in both flasks
Over the past several decades, natural selection has caused populations of Staphylococcus aureus (an infectious wound bacterium) to evolve resistance to most antibiotics. If antibiotic use were stopped, what would you predict would happen to these S. aureus populations?
c) the frequency of nonresistant forms will increase in these populations
The phylogenetic tree below ___.
a) depicts the three major domains of life
Starting from the wild mustard Brassica oleracea, breeders have created the strains known as Brussels sprouts, broccoli, kale, and cabbage. Which of the following statements is supported by this observation?
a) in this species, there is enough heritable variation to create a variety of features
Both tuna (fish) and dolphins (mammals) have a stramlined body shape and large tail fins that they use to move through the water. Many other anatomical and molecular data indicate, however, that tuna and dolphins are not closely related from an evolutionary perspective. The latter data suggest that ___.
c) Tuna and dolphins faced similar selective pressures on body shape for reproductive success.
If you find a mouse in your basement, it is likely Mus musculus. Peromyscus leucopus is also common. Or, you may get lucky and find a relatively rare Peromyscus maniculatus instead. Out of these three species, which two are the most closely related (from an evolutionary standpoint)?
b) the two species in the Peromyscus genus
Why did the five-kingdom system of classification fall out of favor?
d) it did not reflect the actual evolutionary relationships among organisms very well
On an evolutionary tree, any group that includes a common ancestor and all of its descendants is called monophyletic ("one-tribe"). Recall the current tree for Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Are Prokaryotes monophyletic?
For many years no one bothered to test the food-competition hypothesis for why giraffes have long necks. Why?
b) the hypothesis was so plausible that no one thought to question it.
A parent cell divides to form two genetically identical daughter cells in the process of mitosis. For mitosis to take place ___.
b) the parent cell must first replicate its entire genome
In Eukaryotic Cells, chromososmes are composed of ___.
c) DNA and proteins
What is the final result of mitosis?
a)genetically identical 2n somatic cells
the microtubule-organizing center found in animal cells is an identifiable structure present during all phases of the cell cycle. Specifically, it is known as which of the following?
Metaphase occurs prior to the splitting of centromeres. It is characterized by _____.
a) aligning of chromosomes on the equator
Mitosis is the process of chromosome separation. Cytoplasm is divided between the two daughter cells in a process known as ____.
Some cells have several nuclei per cell. How could such multinucleated cells be explained?
c) the cell underwent repeated mitosis, but cytokinesis did not occur.
How is plant cell cytokinesis different from animal cell cytokinesis?
b) plant cells deposit vesicles containing cell-wall building blocks on the metaphase plate; animal cells form a cleaveage furrow.
The M-phase checkpoint is designed to make sure all chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle. If this fails to happen, in which stage of mitosis would the cells be most likely to arrest?
If a cell has accumulated DNA damage, it is unlikely to ____.
a) pass the G2 checkpoint
Which of the following processes contributes directly to genetic variation?
Somatic cells of roundworms have four chromosomes. How many chromosomes would you find in an ovum from a roundworm?
Meiosis involves the creation of haploid cells from diploid cells. The haploid chromosome number is created when ___.
a) Homologous chromosomes seperate
What is a major difference between mitosis and meiosis I?
a) Sister chromatids seperate in mitosis, and homologues seperate in Meiosis I
Crossover, the exchange of segments of homologous chromosomes, takes place during which of the following processes?
Male grasshoppers (such as the karyotype shown here above), have a single X chromosome. How many chromosomes would be in a sperm cell from this grasshopper?
Chromosomes and their homologues align at the equator of the cell during ___.
At what stage of meiosis does DNA replication take place?
d) None. DNA replication occurs before meiosis I begins
If meiosis produces haploid cells, how is the diploid number restored for those organisms that spend most of their life cycle in the diploid state?
Asexual reproduction takes place by which of the following processes?
Mendel crossed yellow-seeded and green-seeded pea plants and then allowed the offspring to self-polinate to produce an F2 generation. The results were as follows: 6022 yellow and 2001 green (8023 total). The allele for green seeds has what relationship to the allele for yellow seeds?
A man and woman are both of normal pigmentation, but both have one parent who is albino (without manin pigmentation). Albinism is an autosomal (not sex-linked) recessive trait. What is the probablility that their first child will be an albino?
In tigers, a recessive allele causes a white tiger (absence of fur pigmentation). If one phenotypically normal tiger that is heterozygous is mated to another that is phenotypically white, what percentage of their offspring is expected to be white?
A black guinea pig crossed with an albino guinea pig produced 12 black offspring. When the albino was crossed with a second black animal, 6 blacks and 6 albinos were obtained. What is the best explanation for this genetic situation?
a) Albino is recessive; black is dominant
When mendel crossed Yellow-seeded and green-seeded pea plants, all the offspring were yellow seeded. When he took these F1 yellow-seeded plants and crossed them to green-seeded plants, what genotypic ratio is expected?
A recessive allele on the X chromosome is responsible for red-green color blindness in humans. A woman with normal vision whose father is color blind marries a color blind male. What is the probability that this couples firs son will be color blind?
A man who carries an allele of an X-linked gene will pass it on to ____.
a) all of his daughters
Regarding an allelic pair for flower color in snapdragons, heterozygotes have pink flowers whereas the two homozygotes have red flowers or white flowers. When plants with red flowers are crossed with plants with white flowers, what proportion of the offspring is expected to have pink flowers?
Snapdragons are flowers that come in a variety of colors, including red pink and white. A series of crosses with snapdragons having flowers of different colors produced the following results:
Pink x pink: 27 pink, 13 red, 14 white
red x red: all red
white x white: all white
pink x white: 29 pink, 26 white
pink x red: 28 pink, 27 red
white x red: all pink
Based on the results, what is the most reasonable explanation for the inheritance of these flower colors?
b) incomplete dominance
In humans ABO blood types refer to glycoproteins in the membranes of red blood cells. There are three alleles for this autosomal gene: IA, IB, and i. The IA allele codes for the A glycoprotein, the IB allele codes for the B glycoprotein, and the i allele doesn't code for any membrane glycoprotein. IA and IB are codominant, and i is recessive to both IA and IB. People with A type blood have the genotypes IAIA or IAi, people with type B blood are IBIB or IBi, people with type AB blood are IAIB, and people with O type blood are ii. If a woman with type AB blood marries a man with type O blood, which of the following blood types could their children possibly have?
a) A and B