Test 2 cardio.txt
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- description "Cardiology"
- fileName "Test 2 cardio"
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- What are agranulocytosis?
- Severe reduction in the number of granulocytes. WBCs Decrease in 200/mm3
What does this person have?
Flu like symptoms
Symptoms of infection
Ulceration of the mucous membranes.
What are two broad spectrum antibiotics?
What is leukemia?
Abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually WBCs
What type of leukemia is rapid onset?
What type of leukemia pt live longer
Infection number 1 for nanda diagnosis?
Leukemia AML age effected?
Teen to mid 20s
Leukemia with ALL age effected?
If they have extreme elevation in WBCs and anemia?
The two types of chemo mostly used?
What is multiple myeloma?
Malignant neoplastic immunodeficiency disease of the bone marrow. Breakdown of bone causes pathological fractures
Clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma?
- Bone pain
- RENAL FAILURE due to calcium
- PATHOLOGICAL FRACTURES
What disease do you have to treat pain, fluid increase and make the patient keep moving and get out if bed?
What is CRAB?
- C calcium elevated
- R renal failure
- A anemia
- B bone lesion
Lymphatic system functions
- Maintenance of fluid balance
- Production of lymphocytes
- Absorption and transportation of lipids from the intestine to the bloodstream.
What are the three parts of the lymphatic systemm?
What is lymph fluid?
Pale yellow, moves from the plasma through the capillary walls and becomes interstitial fluid.
What is lymph nodes?
Scattered through the body and contain dense patches of lymphocytes and macrophages.
What are lymph organs?
The tonsils, adenoids, spleen and the thymus.
What does the thymus do? When does it decreasee?
- T cell develop
- Helps develop immune system
- Produces hormone that growth and activity of lymphocytes throughout the body
- Large when a child and decrease with age
What are tonsils?
- Produce lymphocytes and antibodies
- Trap bacteria
What does the spleen do?
- Stores 500ml of blood
- Forms lymphocytes and monocytes.
- Forms plasma
- Destroys RBCs
- Removes bacteria by phagocytosis
What is a lymph?
- A specialized fluid formed in the tissue space.
- Transported by way of thr lymphatic vessels and reenters the circulatory system.
What is lymphangitis?
Inflammation of one or more lymphatic vessels.
Fine red streaks from affected area chills/fever and myalgia are from?
- Enlarged lymph nodes
What is used to treat lymphangitis?
What is lymphedema?
Accumulation of lymph in the tissue.
What are signs and symptoms of lymphedema?
Massive edema and tightness of the affected extremity.
What is a lymphangiography?
Its to differentiate from venous disorder.
What are treatments for lymphedema.
- Compression pump
- Elastic stockings
- Monitor diet
- Meticulous skin care
What is non-hodgkins lymphoma?
- Neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue.
- Effects b-cells
Pt has anemia, PAINLESS enlarged cervical lymph nodes she has?
What is a bone scan?
Hot spots showing of cancer cells with nuclear injection
What is a coombs test?
It shows antibody reaction.
Labs for Non-hodgkins lymphoma?
- Decreased iron
- Decreased albumin
- Increased in calcium
- Elevated platelet count
What is a positive reed-sternberg calls?
What is a negative reed-sternberg calls?
Negative non-hodgkins cells
Tx for non-hodgkins disease?
- Stage 1 or 2 Radiation
- Stage 3 or 4 Chemotherapy and combination
Inflammatory or infectious process that develops into a neoplasm.
Clinical manifestation of Hodgkins Disease?
- PAINLESS enlargement of cervical lymph nodes.
- Weight loss
What are the two sides of the heart and which side has oxygen?
- Right side has deoxygenated blood
- Left side has oxygenated blood
How does the blood travel threw the heart?
- Body to right atrium
- To right ventricle
- To pulmonary Vein
- To left atrium
- To left ventricle
- To Aorta
3 layers of the heart from innermost to outermost?
Function of pericardium?
Filled with pericardial fluid to lube friction
Function of the myocardium
Stimulate contraction threw electrical conduction
What does the endocardium do?
Paralstasis blood moves et cover valves
What is the automaticity
The heart can activate an electrical pulse
What is irritability?
Response to electrical current
How does the electrical current travel?
- SA node
- Av node
- Bundle of his
- Bundle of branches left or right
- Purkinge fibers
What are arteries
Vessels that carry blood away from the heart
What are veins
Vessels that carry blood to the heart
What are capillaries
Tiny blood vessels joining the arterioles and venules
What is systemic circulation
- From left ventricle to body back to atrium
- Deoxygenating blood
What is pulmonary circulation
- From right ventricle to lungs to left atrium
- Oxygenating blood
What is a P wave
Depolarization of the atria
What is a PR interval
Atrial depolarization and impulse travel through the AV node to the ventricles
QRS complex is?
Depolarization of ventricles
T wave is?
Repolarization of the ventricles
What is a ECG?
Graphic representation of cardiac electrical activity
What are sinus arrhythmias?
Results from changes in intrathoracic pressure during breathing. Heart rate increases
What is a premature complex?
SA node firing prematurely
Heart rate greater than 100beats min
SA node fails to discharge or is blcked
Premature atrial complexes
Atrial tissue irritable and fires an impulse before next sinus impulse is due. P wave is too early
Clinical manifestation for PAC
- Decrease caffeine and nicotine
- Premature Atrial Complexes
- Rapid atrial depolarization rate 250-350 times per minute
- AV node blocks impulses to the ventricles.
Atrial flutter clinical manifestations
Atrial fibrillation Afib
- Irregular heart rate. Most common
- Atrial foci rate 350-600 times per minute
What risk is increased with Afib
- Thrombus formation
- Blood clot
What is a ventricular dysrhythmia
- Irritable ventricular cells may generate electrical impulses and fire prematurely
- Wide QRS
What is a Premature ventricular complexe PVC
- Increased irritability of the ventricular cells
- Not getting enough blood in the body
Clinical manifestations of PVC
- Weak pulses
- Chest discomfort
Interventions for PVC
- Eliminate caffeine
- Administer oxygen
What type of drug is metapropalol
Negative inotropic effect
Ventricular tachycardia V tach
Repetitive firing of an irritable ventricular ectopic focus rate of 140 -180 beats/min
Interventions of V tach
Oxygen and CPR
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