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What is the U.S. definition of Collateral Damage?
Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in teh circumstances ruling at the time. Such damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military advantage anticipated from the attack.
Why is the U.S. Military concerned with Collateral Damage?
- The Law of War requires reasonable precautions to ensure only legitimate military objects are targeted.
- It supports our national values.
- It reduces strategic risk and maintains international and domestic support for our missions.
- It reduces post-combat operational requirements.
- It's the right thing to do.
What are the commander's responsibilities for collateral damage?
Commanders are charged with the inherent responsible take all reasonable actions to minimize and mitigate collateral effects.
What three things must a commander consider for targeting?
- Necessary: The action is required to meet the commander's objectives.
- Proportional: Only the minimum force required must be used to achieve the desired effect.
- Reasonable: Assurance that the target location and function are determined to a reasonable certainty.
What are the three operational imperatives?
- Friendly Force
- Collateral Damage
What are the strategic consequences of excessive collateral damage?
- Reduced domestic and international support
- More restrictive ROE
- Prolonged post-combat reconstruction
- Early termination of operations
What does the Joint CDE Methodology provide?
A logical framework that describes and enables a process, supported by empirical JMEM data, to estimate and mitigate collateral effects.
To what levels of war does the Joint CDE Methodology apply?
It is applicable to joint targeting and indirect fires at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war.
What does the Joint CDE Methodology not prevent a commander from doing?
- It does not limit or supercede his ability to respond to time-sensitive targets.
- It does not relieve him of his inherent right of self defense.
Does CDE apply below the operational level?
Operational or Combatant commanders have the latitude to decide the manner of application of the CDE methodology below the operational level.
What are the 5 CDE Levels?
- CDE 1: Target Validation / Initial Assessment
- CDE 2: General / Minimum Target Size Assessment
- CDE 3: Weaponeering Assessment
- CDE 4: Refined Assessment
- CDE 5: Casualty Estimate / Assessment
Why is the Collateral Damage Methodology needed?
- It supports the identification and management of risk.
- It support decision making.
- Its outputs support the STAR process.
- It establishes policy guidance.
What are sensitive targets?
Those targets for which planned actions warrant the Secretary of Defense or President of the United States' review and approval.
Where are sensitive targets listed?
What are some reasons a target is declared sensitive?
- High collateral damage or collateral effect.
- Adverse political ramifications.
- Environmental harm or hazard.
- Adverse public sentiment.
What is the STAR process? What manual describes it?
- Sensitive Target and Review.
- CJCSI 3122.06
What is a collateral person or object?
Non-combatant persons or objects defined by LOW and/or ROE that are not lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time.
What are the types of collateral objects?
Collateral objects include both physical and abstract objects whose damage or destruction would produce a disproportionate effect on the non-combatant population.
What are the two categories of collateral objects?
- Category 1: Most Sensitive
- Category 2: Less Sensitive
What is a No-Strike List?
A list of all identified ojbects within a specified geographic area functionally characterized as non-combatant / civilian in nature.
How are No-Strike Entities listed?
They are functionally identified within the Modernized Integrated Database (MIDB) by category code (CATCODE).
When will commanders create No-Strike Lists?
- For each assigned AOR Country (Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) or Guidance for the Employment of Force (GEF)).
- For each OPLAN / OPORD in the AO.
What is the role of the National Intelligence Community (IC)?
- To support and assist COCOMs with No-Strike List development.
- To validate NSL additions.
What is required of No-Strike Entities on military installations?
- They must be geospatially defined as distinct facilities.
- They must be treated as collateral objects.
What is required when No-Strike Entities are nominated for targeting?
- They must be reclassified as a valid target and removed from the No-Strike List.
- They require ROE authorization.
- They must be classified as dual-use.
What are Restricted Targets?
Restricted Targets are valid military targets on which the Combatant Commander has restricted or limited effects based on operational, political, intelligence gain or loss, CDE, or other considerations.
When is a Restricted Target List produced?
Combatant Commanders are responsible to produce a Restricted Target List for each OPLAN / OPORD.
What is the relationaship between the No-Strike List and the Restricted Target List?
None. They are separate and distinct.
What are 'dual-use' targets?
Targets characterized as having both a military and civilian purpose or function.
Where are the authorizations and prohibitions regarding targeting dual-use facilities?
In the ROE
What are the Casualty Estimation requirements for dual-use structures?
All occupants of a dual-use structure are characterized as non-combatant casualties.
When does a LOW-protected structure lose its protected status?
- When it is occupied by enemy combatants for the purpose of advancing military objectives.
- These are not considered dual-use structures.
What is the commander's responsibility when declaring protected structures dual-use?
Commanders are responsible to determine to predominant functionality of protected structures based on current intelligenc, guided by or considering the current operational ROE.
What are Human Shields?
Human Shields are non-combatant personnel intentionally placed around a valid military target to hinder attack of that target.
What are the two classifications of Human Shields?
- Voluntary (not accounted for in CE)
- Involuntary (must be accounted for in CE)
What is the rule if the voluntary or involuntary status of Human Shields is not known?
- The more restrictive rule applies and they are to be treated as protected persons or collateral objects.
- Human Shields may be willing accomplices or unwilling prisoners.
- Human Shields are treated as Category 1+.
What are the commander's responsibilities toward Human Shields?
- Commanders are responsible to identify and track Huan Shields and to take steps to mitigate the effects of combat on these individuals.
- Human Shields must be accounted for in Casualty Estimateion based on the most current intelligence available at the time of the attack.
What are the primary causes of Collateral Damage?
- Incorrect identification (PID) - 70%
- Weapon malfunctioni - 22%
- Conscious decision - 7%
What factors affect delivery accuracy?
What are the two components needed to establish PID?
- Target geospatially defined
- Determined function, activity or purpose
What is Target Location Error (TLE)?
- The difference between actual target location and perceived target location.
- A radius defining a circle repesenting mean error (50%).
- CDE methodology uses TLE90.
What determines TLE accuracy?
- Acquisition system (Man or Machine)
- Geo-spatial reference system
What is Circular Error Probable?
- The inherent errors in a weapon guidance or delivery system that cause the impact point to differ from the aim point.
- A radius defining a circle within which 50% of weapons will impact.
- CDE methodology uses CE90.
What determines CEP?
- PGM: Weapon guidance system
- ASUGM / SSBM: Delivery platform / system
What type of trajectory do warheads seek?
What is the relationship between range error and deflection error?
- Range error is normally double deflection error.
- Deflection error is normally half range error.
Where do weapons tend to impact?
Long (and right) of the target.
What are the dominant hazards to personnel and structures?
- Personnel: Fragmentation / Ejecta
- Structures: Blast
What are the two TLE90s?
- 20ft/6m for PGM, ASUGM and SSBM-Predicted
- 450ft/137m for SSBM-Observer Adjust
What are the components of TE90?
TEL90 and CE90
What is the formula for Collateral Effects Radius (CER)?
- Unitary Warhead: TE90 + WPN-EI90 = CER
- Cluster Warhead: TE90 + WPN-EI90 + Sub-Munition Pattern Radius = CER
What are the dominant hazards on each table?
- Fragmentation: 1, 2A, 3A(U), 3B, 3C
- Debris/Ejecta: 3A(M)
- Blast: 4A, 4B, 4C
What is the primary mitigation technique for delivery error?
What are the 5 questions of the CDE methodology?
- Can I positively identify the object or person I want to attack as a legitimate military target authorized by the current ROE?
- Are there colalteral objects/persons or significant environmental concerns within the effects range of the weapon I would like to use?
- Can I mitigate damage to those collateral concerns by attacking with a different weapon or method of engagement, yet still accomplish my mission?
- If not, how many non-combatants do I think will be injured/killed?
- Are the collateral effects of my attack excessive in relation to the xpected military advantage gained, and do I need to call my higher commander for permission to attack this target based on the ROE in effect?
How many steps in CDE Level 1?
What are the three factors in CDE Level 1 that will require a Casualty Estimate (CDE Level 5)?
- Dual Use
- Plume Hazard
- Evironmental Hazard
What are the 5 levels of CDE?
- 1. Target Validation / Initial Assessment
- 2. General / Minimum Target Size Assessment
- 3. Weaponeering Assessment
- 4. Refined Assessment
- 5. Casualty Assessment
What are the aimpoint promotion rules?
- 1. Highest CDE level
- 2. Most restrictive weaponeering
- 3. Delay fuzing
- 4. Nearest collateral concern
- 5. Most sensitive function
- 6. Most restrictive heading
What are the additional casualty estimate considerations and who provides them?
- CBR/Plume: DTRA provides HPAC analysis
- Environmental: NCMI provides CHAMP analysis
What are the three types of SSBM sheafs and how is the CHA measured?
- Circular (default) - from the edge of the sheaf
- Linear - from the edge of the sheaf
- Converged - from the aimpoint
What weapons are not included in CDE Level 1?
What are the three methods of target size calculation?
- Short side (Rectangle) Method
- Circule Method
- Segment Method
What does 'mitigation' mean?
100% burial below grade or detonation into a building.
What are mitigation techniques conditional upon?
Mitigation techniques employed are conditional on target presentation.
When is the heading included in a CDE Level 3 estimate?
When it is a multiple warhead delivery.
What are the effects of weapons?
- Thermal (Fire, Heat)
- Blast (Overpressure, Ejecta/Debris)
What is the rule of thumb for delivery headings?