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What is the U.S. definition of Collateral Damage?
Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in teh circumstances ruling at the time. Such damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military advantage anticipated from the attack.
Why is the U.S. Military concerned with Collateral Damage?
- The Law of War requires reasonable precautions to ensure only legitimate military objects are targeted.
- It supports our national values.
- It reduces strategic risk and maintains international and domestic support for our missions.
- It reduces post-combat operational requirements.
- It's the right thing to do.
What are the commander's responsibilities for collateral damage?
Commanders are charged with the inherent responsible take all reasonable actions to minimize and mitigate collateral effects.
What things must a commander consider when targeting?
- Military Necessity
- Unnecessary Suffering
What are the three operational imperatives?
- Mission Completion
- Force Protection
- Collateral Damage
What are the strategic consequences of excessive collateral damage?
- Reduced domestic and international support
- More restrictive ROE
- Prolonged post-combat reconstruction
- Early termination of operations
What does the Joint CDE Methodology provide?
A logical framework that describes and enables a process, supported by empirical JMEM data, to estimate and mitigate collateral effects.
To what levels of war does the Joint CDE Methodology apply?
It is applicable to joint targeting and indirect fires at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war.
What does the Joint CDE Methodology not prevent a commander from doing?
- It does not limit or supercede his ability to respond to time-sensitive targets.
- It does not relieve him of his inherent right of self defense.
Does CDE apply below the operational level?
CDE can apply at the tactical level as well as at the operational level.
What are the 5 CDE Levels?
- CDE 1: Initial Analysis
- CDE 2: PGM General Analysis
- CDE 3: Weaponeering Analysis
- CDE 4: Refined Analysis
- CDE 5: Casualty Analysis
Why is the Collateral Damage Methodology needed?
- It supports the identification and management of risk.
- It support decision making.
- Its outputs support the STAR process.
- It establishes policy guidance.
What are sensitive targets?
Those targets for which planned actions warrant the Secretary of Defense or President of the United States' review and approval.
Where are sensitive targets listed?
What are some reasons a target is declared sensitive?
- High collateral damage or collateral effect.
- Adverse political ramifications.
- Environmental harm or hazard.
- Adverse public sentiment.
What is the STAR process? What manual describes it?
- Sensitive Target Approval and Review.
- CJCSI 3122.06
What is a collateral person or object?
Non-combatant persons or objects defined by LOW and/or ROE that are not lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time.
What are the types of collateral objects?
Collateral objects include both physical and abstract objects whose damage or destruction would produce a disproportionate effect on the non-combatant population.
What are the two categories of collateral objects?
- Category 1: Most Sensitive
- Category 2: Less Sensitive
What is a No-Strike List?
A list of all identified ojbects within a specified geographic area functionally characterized as non-combatant / civilian in nature.
How are No-Strike Entities listed?
They are functionally identified within the Modernized Integrated Database (MIDB) by category code (CATCODE).
When will commanders create No-Strike Lists?
- For each assigned AOR Country (Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) or Guidance for the Employment of Force (GEF)).
- For each OPLAN / OPORD in the AO.
What is the role of the National Intelligence Community (IC)?
- To support and assist COCOMs with No-Strike List development.
- To validate NSL additions.
What is required of No-Strike Entities on military installations?
- They must be geospatially defined as distinct facilities.
- They must be treated as collateral objects.
What is required when No-Strike Entities are nominated for targeting?
- They must be reclassified as a valid target and removed from the No-Strike List.
- They require ROE authorization.
- They must be classified as dual-use.
What are Restricted Targets?
Restricted Targets are valid military targets on which the Combatant Commander has restricted or limited effects based on operational, political, intelligence gain or loss, CDE, or other considerations.
When is a Restricted Target List produced?
Combatant Commanders are responsible to produce a Restricted Target List for each OPLAN / OPORD.
What is the relationaship between the No-Strike List and the Restricted Target List?
- Restricted targets that are limited from attack.
- No-Strike Entities are not targets.
What are 'dual-use' targets?
Targets characterized as having both a military and civilian purpose or function.
Where are the authorizations and prohibitions regarding targeting dual-use facilities?
In the ROE
What are the Casualty Estimation requirements for dual-use structures?
All occupants of a dual-use structure are characterized as non-combatant casualties.
When does a LOW-protected structure lose its protected status?
- When it is occupied by enemy combatants for the purpose of advancing military objectives.
- These are not considered dual-use structures.
What is the commander's responsibility when declaring protected structures dual-use?
Commanders are responsible to determine to predominant functionality of protected structures based on current intelligenc, guided by or considering the current operational ROE.
What are Human Shields?
Human Shields are non-combatant personnel intentionally placed around a valid military target to hinder attack of that target.
What are the two classifications of Human Shields?
- Voluntary (not accounted for in CE)
- Involuntary (must be accounted for in CE)
What is the rule if the voluntary or involuntary status of Human Shields is not known?
They are to treated as protected persons or collateral objects.
What are the commander's responsibilities toward Human Shields?
- To identify and track Human Shields
- To take steps to mitigate the effects of combat on these individuals.
- To account for them in Casualty Estimation
What are the primary causes of Collateral Damage?
- Incorrect identification (PID)
- Weapon malfunction
- Conscious decision
What factors affect delivery accuracy?
What are the two components needed to establish PID?
- Environment (Location, Description)
- Function (Function, Activity, or Purpose)
What is Target Location Error (TLE)?
- The difference between actual target location and perceived target location.
- A radius defining a circle repesenting mean error (50%).
- CDE methodology uses TLE90.
What determines TLE accuracy?
- Acquisition system (Man or Machine)
- Geo-spatial reference system
What is Circular Error Probable?
- The inherent errors in a weapon guidance or delivery system that cause the impact point to differ from the aim point.
- A radius defining a circle within which 50% of weapons will impact.
- CDE methodology uses CE90.
What determines CEP?
- PGM: Weapon guidance system
- ASUGM / SSBM: Delivery platform / system
What type of trajectory do warheads seek?
What is the relationship between range error and deflection error?
- Range error is normally double deflection error.
- Deflection error is normally half range error.
How do weapons tend to error on impact?
What are the dominant hazards to personnel and structures?
- Personnel: Fragmentation / Debris/Ejecta
- Structures: Blast
What are the two TLE90s?
- 20ft/6m for PGM, ASUGM and SSBM-Predicted
- 450ft/137m for SSBM-Observer Adjust
What are the components of TE90?
TLE90 and CEP90
What is the formula for Collateral Effects Radius (CER)?
- Unitary Warhead: TE90 + WCER
- Cluster Warhead: TE90 + WCER + Sub-Munition Pattern Radius
What are the dominant hazards on each table?
- Fragmentation: 1, 2A, 3A(U), 3B, 3C
- Debris/Ejecta: 3A(M)
- Blast (blunt force against occupants): 4A, 4B, 4C
What is the primary mitigation technique for delivery error?
What are the 5 questions of the CDE methodology?
- Can I positively identify the object or person I want to attack as a legitimate military target authorized by the current ROE?
- Are there colalteral objects/persons or significant environmental concerns within the effects range of the weapon I would like to use?
- Can I mitigate damage to those collateral concerns by attacking with a different weapon or method of engagement, yet still accomplish my mission?
- If not, how many non-combatants do I think will be injured/killed?
- Are the collateral effects of my attack excessive in relation to the xpected military advantage gained, and do I need to call my higher commander for permission to attack this target based on the ROE in effect?
How many steps in CDE Level 1?
What are the three factors in CDE Level 1 that will require a Casualty Estimate (CDE Level 5)?
- Dual Use
- Plume Hazard
- Evironmental Hazard
What are the aimpoint promotion rules?
- 1. Highest CDE level
- 2. Most restrictive weaponeering
- 3. Delay fuzing
- 4. Nearest collateral concern
- 5. Most sensitive function
- 6. Most restrictive heading
What are the additional casualty estimate considerations and who provides them?
- DTRA: CBR Plume analysis (HPAC)
- NAVO: Above grade water analysis
- NCMI: Health risk analysis
What are the three types of SSBM sheafs and how is the CHA measured?
- Circular (default) - from the edge of the sheaf
- Linear - from the edge of the sheaf
- Converged - from the aimpoint
What weapons are not included in CDE Level 1?
- U/RGM-109D Tomahawk (TLAM)
- M26A2 ER-MLRS >1/2 max range
What are the three methods of target size calculation?
- Short side (Rectangle) Method
- Circule Method
- Segment Method
What are the mitigation techniques?
- Delay Fuze: Blast, Frag, Thermal
- VT/Air Burst: Blast, Ejecta/Debris
- Shielding: All
- Deliver Heading: Frag
- Offset Aimpoint: Frag, Blast, Ejecta/Debris
What are mitigation techniques conditional upon?
Mitigation techniques employed are conditional on target presentation.
When is the heading included in a CDE Level 3 estimate?
When it is a multiple warhead delivery.
What are the effects of weapons?
- Thermal (Fire, Heat)
- Blast (Overpressure, Ejecta/Debris)
What is the rule of thumb for delivery headings?
What warheads are not included in CDE L3?
- U/RGM-109D Tomahawk (TLAM)
- M39A1 ATACMS
What are the Plume Hazards cases?
- Case 1: The target is the hazard (CDE 5).
- Case 2: The target is not the hazard, but can't be mitigated (CDE 5).
- Case 3: The target is not the hazard and can be mitigated (Continue with tables).
What are the rules for cemeteries?
- Treat as Cat 1 (Most Sensitive)
- Class as 'outdoor extensive'
- Determine pattern of life
What are the Collateral Damage Thresholds?
- Level 1: 10% Personnel vs. Frag
- Level 2A: 10% Personnel vs. Frag
- Level 3A(U), 3B, 3C: 10% Personnel vs. Frag
- Level 3A(M): 10% Personnel vs. Ejecta/Debris
- Level 4A, 4B, 4C: 1% Structure vs. Blast
What are the rules for tents?
Treat as 'outdoor'
What are the rules for power transmission lines?
- Cat 2 (Less Sensitive)
- Unknown structure type
- CDE 5 Low
What munitions are excluded from table 4A?
- Cluster munitions, ICM
- RAP, Extended range artillery, mortar, Naval guns
What is the rule for delivery heading span?
Must be at least 30°, less then 180°
How are manmade waterways treated?
- Treat as roads
- Ignore if under 3m in width
What is the source of the population density table?`
- Oak Ridge National Laboratories
- Approved by COCOM
- Based on Functional use
What is the rule for casualty factor value?
It is always 1.0 unless the object is an indoor concern in the outer anulus.
How is Casualty Estimate calculated?
(Affected Square Footage/1000) * Population Density * Casualty Factor
How are outdoor collateral objects handled in CDE Level 3?
When any collateral object is outdoor and within the CDE Level 3 Collateral Hazard Area, the CDE call will be CDE 5.
What are the limitation and exclusions of CDE?
- Surface-to-surface direct fire or air-to-surface direct fire <= 105mm.
- Weapon malfunctions, unknown delivery errors, operator-altered delivery.
- Unknown transients.
- Secondary explosions.
- Marking/adjusting rounds in SSBM OA.
- Cluster/ICM at CDE L4.
- RAP or extended range SSBM at CDE L4 (excl:M549 HERA w/PGK).
When should an NSE be removed from the NSL?
After 12 months if it does not revert to its NSE function.