Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to Persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time. Damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military advantage. What is this?
Military Commanders are charged with the inherent responsibilityto take all reasonable actoins to ______ and _____ collateral effects.
Commanders minimize and mitigate collateral effects by ensuring effects are:
US Military is concerned with collateral damage for the following reasons:
Required by LOW
Supports National Values
Reduces Strategic risk / Maintains International and domestic support for mission
Reduces Post-Combat Operational Requirements
Its the right thing to do.
Commanders are responsible to evalutate and balance risk based on the following three operational imperatives:
The ______ _____ ____ ____ normally helps commanders evaluate and balance risk based on operational imperatives.
Joint Operational Planning Process (JOPP)
What strategic Consequieces are produced by Excessive Collateral Damage?
More Restrictive ROE
Prolonged Post-Combat Reconstruction
Early Terminatino of Operations.
CDM is applicable to Joint Targetng and Indirect Fires at what levels?
CDM does _____ intend to limit or supersede a commader's ability to respond to ____ ____ ___ or the inherent right of __________
Not, Time Sensitive Targets (TST), self-defense
______ dictates decision authorities and collateral damage thresholds.
CDM provides a _____ framework that describes and enables a ____, supported by empirical _____ data, to _____ and _____ collateral effects.
logical, process, JMEM, estimate, mitigate
____ or _____ _____ have the latitude to decide the manner of applicaiton of the CDM below the ______ level.
Operational, Combatant Commanders, Operational
What are the 5 levels within the Join CDE methodology?
CDE 1 - Target Validation / Initial Assessment
CDE 2 - General / MTS assessment
CDE 3 - Weaponeering Assessment
CDE 4 - Refined Assessment
CDE 5 - Casuality Estimate / Assessment
CDM is needed because?
Supports identification and management of risk
Supports Decision making
Establishes policy guidance
Outputs support the STAR process
What warrants the SECDEF or POTUS review and approval, a CDE 5 and are delineated in OPLAN/CONPLANS, OPORD, EXORD and ROE by combatant Commanders?
Sensitive targets exceed national-level thresholds such as:
High collateral damage or collateral effects
adverse political ramifications
adverse public sentiment
What doctrine covers Sensitive Target and Review (STAR) process?
What doctrine covers CDE?
CJCIS 3160.01, 13 Feb 09
____ ____ include both physical and abstract objects whose damage or destruction would produce a disproportionate effect on the Non-combatant population.
A list of all identified objects within a specified geographic area (country or AO) functinoally characterized as Non-Combatant / Civilian in nature.
No-Strike List (NSL)
How many categories of Collateral Objects are there, and what are they?
Category I: Most Sensitive
Category II: Least Sensitive
Combatant Commanders Shall identify No-Strike Objecst and produce NSL for:
Each AOR Country
o Joint Strategic Capabillities Plan (JSCP) or
o Guidance for employment of the force (GEF)
Each OPLAN/OPORD Area of Operations
The National Intelligence Community (IC) shall:
Support and Assist COCOMs w/ NSL development
Validate NSL addtions
No-Strike Entities loacted on military instillations must be:
Geospatially defined as distinct facilities
Treated as Collateral Objects
No-Strike Entities nominated for targeting must:
Be re-classified as a valid target & removed from NSL
Require ROE authroization
Classified as Dual-Use
The NSL is a ______ and _______ list from the RSL.
____ ____ are valid military targets which the Combatant Commander has restricted/ limited effects based on Operational, political, intelligence gain/loss, CDE or other considerations.
The COCOM limits or restricts effects for restricted targets based on what?
Operational, political, intelligence gain or loss
COCOMs are responsible to produce a restricted target list for each ______.
_______ are those characterized as having both a military and civilian purpose.
Damage is not unlawful so long as it is not ____ in light of the overall _____ _____.
Excessive, military advantage
_____ Provides the authorizations and prohibitions regarding targeting dual-use facilities.
Requires CE whereby all of the accupants of the Dual-Use Structures are characterized as _____ _____.
____ are responsible to determine the Dual-Use nature of a target based on current intelligence, guided by or considering the current operational ROE.
(Dual-Use targets) May consist of ____ protected facilities/structures occupied by combatants.
LOW protected structures occupied by enemy combatants for the ____ __ ____ _____ objectives lose their LOW protection and are not classified as Dual-Use.
purpose of advancing military
____ _____ are Non-Combatant personnel intentionally placed around a valid military target to hinder attack of that target.
What are the two classifications or human shields?
Which type of Human Shields must be accounted for in CE?
If the status of human shields is ___ ____, then the more restrictive rule applies, and they are to be protected as protected persons/collateral objects.
What are the primary causes of Collateral Damage?
Weapon Malfunction (22%)
Conscious Decision (8%)
What are the two components that establish PID?
Determine Function/activity/purpose/ location
A radius defining a circle representing mean error (50%).
Target Location Error
CDE methodology uses what level of TLE?
TLE90 comes from two sources, what are they?
Acquisition system (Man or machine)
Geo-Spatial reference system
A radius defining a circle within which 50% of weapons will impact. (what is this?) What level CEP does CE use?
Circular Error Probable (CEP), CE90
CE is based on what?
PGM: weapon guidance system
ASUGM/SSBM: delivery system
CDM makes what weaponeering assumptions?
Warheads will always seek a ballistic trajectory
Range Error is normally double deflection error
Weapons have a tendency to impact long (and to the right) of a target.
What is the dominate hazard to personnel?
Fragmentation / Debris (ejecta)
What CER/MTS tables has Fragmentation for a dominate hazard?
1, 2A, 3A(U), 3B, 3C
What CER/MTS tables has Debris/Ejecta for a dominate hazard?
What CER/MTS tables has Blast as a dominate hazard?
4A, 4B, 4C
What CER/MTS tables has TLE90 as a dominate hazard?
What is the dominate hazard to structures?
_____ + ______ = CER
What are the distances for predicted (P)?
6m / 20ft
What type of munition uses Observer Adjust and what are the distances?