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Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to Persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time. Damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military advantage. What is this?
Military Commanders are charged with the inherent responsibilityto take all reasonable actoins to ______ and _____ collateral effects.
Commanders minimize and mitigate collateral effects by ensuring effects are:
US Military is concerned with collateral damage for the following reasons:
- Required by LOW
- Supports National Values
- Reduces Strategic risk / Maintains International and domestic support for mission
- Reduces Post-Combat Operational Requirements
- Its the right thing to do.
Commanders are responsible to evalutate and balance risk based on the following three operational imperatives:
- Friendly Forces
- Collateral Damage
The ______ _____ ____ ____ normally helps commanders evaluate and balance risk based on operational imperatives.
Joint Operational Planning Process (JOPP)
What strategic Consequieces are produced by Excessive Collateral Damage?
- Reduced Support
- More Restrictive ROE
- Prolonged Post-Combat Reconstruction
- Early Terminatino of Operations.
CDM is applicable to Joint Targetng and Indirect Fires at what levels?
CDM does _____ intend to limit or supersede a commader's ability to respond to ____ ____ ___ or the inherent right of __________
Not, Time Sensitive Targets (TST), self-defense
______ dictates decision authorities and collateral damage thresholds.
CDM provides a _____ framework that describes and enables a ____, supported by empirical _____ data, to _____ and _____ collateral effects.
logical, process, JMEM, estimate, mitigate
____ or _____ _____ have the latitude to decide the manner of applicaiton of the CDM below the ______ level.
Operational, Combatant Commanders, Operational
What are the 5 levels within the Join CDE methodology?
- CDE 1 - Target Validation / Initial Assessment
- CDE 2 - General / MTS assessment
- CDE 3 - Weaponeering Assessment
- CDE 4 - Refined Assessment
- CDE 5 - Casuality Estimate / Assessment
CDM is needed because?
- Supports identification and management of risk
- Supports Decision making
- Establishes policy guidance
- Outputs support the STAR process
What warrants the SECDEF or POTUS review and approval, a CDE 5 and are delineated in OPLAN/CONPLANS, OPORD, EXORD and ROE by combatant Commanders?
Sensitive targets exceed national-level thresholds such as:
- High collateral damage or collateral effects
- adverse political ramifications
- environmental harm/hazard
- adverse public sentiment
What doctrine covers Sensitive Target and Review (STAR) process?
What doctrine covers CDE?
CJCIS 3160.01, 13 Feb 09
____ ____ include both physical and abstract objects whose damage or destruction would produce a disproportionate effect on the Non-combatant population.
A list of all identified objects within a specified geographic area (country or AO) functinoally characterized as Non-Combatant / Civilian in nature.
No-Strike List (NSL)
How many categories of Collateral Objects are there, and what are they?
- Category I: Most Sensitive
- Category II: Least Sensitive
Combatant Commanders Shall identify No-Strike Objecst and produce NSL for:
- Each AOR Country
- o Joint Strategic Capabillities Plan (JSCP) or
- o Guidance for employment of the force (GEF)
- Each OPLAN/OPORD Area of Operations
The National Intelligence Community (IC) shall:
- Support and Assist COCOMs w/ NSL development
- Validate NSL addtions
No-Strike Entities loacted on military instillations must be:
- Geospatially defined as distinct facilities
- Treated as Collateral Objects
No-Strike Entities nominated for targeting must:
- Be re-classified as a valid target & removed from NSL
- Require ROE authroization
- Classified as Dual-Use
The NSL is a ______ and _______ list from the RSL.
____ ____ are valid military targets which the Combatant Commander has restricted/ limited effects based on Operational, political, intelligence gain/loss, CDE or other considerations.
The COCOM limits or restricts effects for restricted targets based on what?
- Operational, political, intelligence gain or loss
- Other Considerations
COCOMs are responsible to produce a restricted target list for each ______.
_______ are those characterized as having both a military and civilian purpose.
Damage is not unlawful so long as it is not ____ in light of the overall _____ _____.
Excessive, military advantage
_____ Provides the authorizations and prohibitions regarding targeting dual-use facilities.
Requires CE whereby all of the accupants of the Dual-Use Structures are characterized as _____ _____.
____ are responsible to determine the Dual-Use nature of a target based on current intelligence, guided by or considering the current operational ROE.
(Dual-Use targets) May consist of ____ protected facilities/structures occupied by combatants.
LOW protected structures occupied by enemy combatants for the ____ __ ____ _____ objectives lose their LOW protection and are not classified as Dual-Use.
purpose of advancing military
____ _____ are Non-Combatant personnel intentionally placed around a valid military target to hinder attack of that target.
What are the two classifications or human shields?
Which type of Human Shields must be accounted for in CE?
If the status of human shields is ___ ____, then the more restrictive rule applies, and they are to be protected as protected persons/collateral objects.
What are the primary causes of Collateral Damage?
- PID (70%)
- Weapon Malfunction (22%)
- Conscious Decision (8%)
What are the two components that establish PID?
- Geo-spatially defined
- Determine Function/activity/purpose/ location
A radius defining a circle representing mean error (50%).
Target Location Error
CDE methodology uses what level of TLE?
TLE90 comes from two sources, what are they?
- Acquisition system (Man or machine)
- Geo-Spatial reference system
A radius defining a circle within which 50% of weapons will impact. (what is this?) What level CEP does CE use?
Circular Error Probable (CEP), CE90
CE is based on what?
- PGM: weapon guidance system
- ASUGM/SSBM: delivery system
CDM makes what weaponeering assumptions?
- Warheads will always seek a ballistic trajectory
- Range Error is normally double deflection error
- Weapons have a tendency to impact long (and to the right) of a target.
What is the dominate hazard to personnel?
Fragmentation / Debris (ejecta)
What CER/MTS tables has Fragmentation for a dominate hazard?
1, 2A, 3A(U), 3B, 3C
What CER/MTS tables has Debris/Ejecta for a dominate hazard?
What CER/MTS tables has Blast as a dominate hazard?
4A, 4B, 4C
What CER/MTS tables has TLE90 as a dominate hazard?
What is the dominate hazard to structures?
_____ + ______ = CER
What are the distances for predicted (P)?
6m / 20ft
What type of munition uses Observer Adjust and what are the distances?
Surface-to-Surface Ballistic Munitions (SSBM) / 137m 450ft
You can only provide 3 types for spreads for heading, what are they?
030o, 090o, 180o
Mitigation techniques employed are conditional on ____ ____.
Target presentaion (environmental)
Heading must start, end or bisect from a ______ direction
Engagement zones require a ______ heading from a cardinal direction.
CDM seeks to answer 5 questions, what are they?
- 1. Can I PID the target as valid mil target and authorized by ROE?
- 2. Are there Collateral Objects/Non-Combatant Personnel within the effects range of the weapon i want to employ?
- 3.Can I mitigate these CE by selecting a different weapon or method of engagement?
- 4. If not, how many Non-Combatant will be kill or injured?
- 5. Are the negative Collateral effects excessive in relation to the expect military gain and do I need to call higher HQ for permission to engage?
CDE level 1 has How many steps, and what are they?
- PID, Boundary, CER/CHA, ROE/LOW, Dual-Use, NSL Protected, CBR Plume, and Environmental Hazard
Which 3 factors in CDE 1 will require a Casualty Estimate (CDE 5)?
- Plume Hazard
- Environmental Hazard
If I don't have these things in CDE 1 I must terminate the CDM, what are they?
CDE 2 is a _____ ____ for ASUGM and SSBM.
CDE 4 assumes the NCP changes from outdoor to indoor. What are we concerned with?
CDE 5 determines the ______ of each affectd Collateral Concern.
What are the methods to determine collateral structure type?
- Nearest CC (USE IN CLASS)
- Weakest CC
- Multiple CC
____ is a radius that defines a Collateral Hazard Area (CHA).
Collateral Effects Radius (CER)
How many CER/MTS reference tables are there?
What tables cover the PGM CER? ASUGM CERMTS? SSBM CER/MTS?
- PGM: 2A, 3A, 4A
- ASUGM: 2B, 3B, 4B
- SSBM: 2C, 3C, 4C
_____ contains one CER value which is applied to all conventional weapons in the US inventory. (with exceptions noted in tables)
CDE 1 CER reference table
CDE 2A has two CER values, what are they?
MTS tables 2B and 2C are used to determine the ______ of employing the designated delivery platform.
What are the 3 types of boundries used for ASUGM and SSBM?
- Rectangular Method
- Circle Method
- Segment Method
CDE 3A tables are listed by _____ not weapon guidance.
How many and what are the types for columns in the CER 3A tables?
_____ means the warhead achives 100% sub-surface warhead or internal detonation.
CDE 3B are based on the combination of what?
- Delivery Platform
- Warhead (Unmitigated / Cluster weapons)
CDE 3C tables are listed by what?
- Weapon System
- Method of Engagment (observer adjusted or predicted)
CDE 4A values are determined by what?
- Collateral Structure Type
CDE 4B are based on a combination of what?
- Delivery Platform
- Mitigated Warhead (Cluster weapons not supported)
CDE 4C tables are based on what?
- Weapon System
- Method of Engagement (OA or P)
- No Collateral persons in the open
What page is the "CDE assessment reference guide" on in the study guide?
What is the only time you will give a heading in a CDE 3 assessment?
Multiple Warhead Deliveries (ASUGM)
What page is the "CER composition reference" on?
Who is the biggest individual in WOBC class 18-12?
Whose's my hero?