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- Signification is the area of discourse where proper English
- functions. Lower case signification is
- the area of discourse where those who are not of the proper English language
- (anyone whose not white of European decent) functions. By using signification
- you can double coat meanings and alter words to express your experience
- allowing people such as black slaves to function and communicate under the
- radar of the whit oppressor.
- Discusses what happens when rhetoric meets race. How a
- minority can take the dominant discourse meant for whites and their experiences
- and double coat it to express their experiences. i.e. black vernacular
- discourse- what did I do to be so black and blue
- standard English according to hooks. “this is the oppressors
- language, yet I need it to speak you”. Language with a history of conquest.
- a teacher who encourages people to understand that
- standard English is a language with a history of oppression and it is important
- to allow students to speak their non dominant language in order to speak their
- personal truths of their experience which keeps their identity intact.
- Important because she knows that language isn’t rational and cannot be controlled
- it is disruptive, it is made up of passion. Forcing people to use standard
- English strips you of your passion.
Rhetoric of difference
- rhetoric spoken through non dominant languages, where use of
- language makes a political statement at the same times it reinforces your individual identity. It is
- important because everyone has their own identity and their own truths that are
- spoken through different languages and if we suppress these we cause people to
- lose their identity.
- Flores a carved out space where one has the power to create
- a new identity other than that placed on you. Important because this space
- gives you agency to make change.
- Chicano feminist who discusses the issues people have
- when they are living on borders and have no real place to call home. She
- invites people to create their own identity and reach out to others in the same
- predicament. She is important because she
- gives hope to people who feels displaced in a culture that is not their
- own and lets them know they are in charge of their world.
- believes the media plays a big role in how we identify
- ourselves. Popular culture is re-centering white hetero sexual masculinity: We
- strayed away from the ideal white man and media reinforces that idea. i.e.
- martial arts films, white men are always good, have muscles and asian men are
Orders of discourse
- 1. Exclusions: sexuality, politics. 2. Division: madness( we
- don’t have to listen to) vs. sanity 3. Will to truth: our desire to find it but
- nothing to back it up because it’s a power statement
- philosopher, psychiatrist, psychologist. We’re worried about
- what discourse might do to us so we order and restrict it Will to truth, we desire
- to find truth that’s unaffected so we can know for sure but that’s impossible
- because our lang affects our reality. Claims we make are usually based on power
- and not truth. Micro politics tell us how to act in society
- how labels (verbal, lang, term) frame someone or something
- in a particular way.
- Select/reflect/deflect. Use language to reflect then select what to say
- then deflect.
- moralized by the negative what makes us human and gives us
- agency. Saying no is saying we are one thing and not the other. No is language
- which is a symbol and without humans we don’t have symbols
- different from persuasion and start emphasize on the things
- Aristotle argued for rhetoric and looks at it more broadly. 1. Most communication
- is not persuasive- goal oriented (don’t think things out before every convo)
- Compensatory- compensate for division because we all don’t want to be
- different. Modes bringin us together is morals beliefs, sports. Consubstatial-
- brings people together- I am a man I can speak for men. Saying no creates our
- identities. For every identification there is a division because if we are one
- thing we are not another. Rhetoric makes identification and division go
- A Russian lived during some horrible world events asked how
- language effects us. The individual consciousness is a social-ideiological
- fact: we are who we are because of our interactions, we have now no sense of
- core self, its external and follows our group beliefs. i.e. workers don’t
- revolt because they think they’ll eventually move up even though they don’t.
- Words are materialistic. Your life is affected by your symbol. i.e. woman= less
- concerned with relationship between language and society.
- Influenced by Marxist theories of group values. Thinks literature is equipment
- for life. All things that humans create have consequences. When you use lang,
- it creates an attitude. Lang tells us how to behave. All rhetoric functions as
- symbolic action. Select, reflect, deflect( lang is a reflection of reality, but
- its selective and deflects us from viewing other aspects). Symbols that are
- always partial and particular, inclusive and exclusive.
- The story told by a slave before to aw people and shock
- before “educated “white man comes and explains how wrong slavery is. Douglass
- wants to tell his story but be accepted for who he has become since then,
- doesn’t just want to be the example, wants to be the movement.
- Former slave who escaped after being taught by his masters wife
- to begin to read. Realizes that slavery
- is wrong from “Liberation”, reads a book on great speeches that includes Cicero
- to teach himself to read and write. When you treat people inhumanely you lose a
- little of yourself. Was caught between being a “slave” and telling the slave
- story and being an educated man. Spoke
- truth to power and acknowledged how labels bias our speech.
Letters on the Equality of the Sexes
- written by Grimke, a letter arguing for women’s right
- to speak in public, specifically church. A lot like fell, uses the bible to argue
- that men are distorting messages in it to keep women down. Important because she recognizes that our
- intelligence is what makes us human and men and women are equally intelligent.
- educated upper class white woman. Argues men and women are created equal but it
- is not happening. Women deserve the right to speak in public. What makes a
- human a human is its ability to think not its strength, so why are men better
- because of their muscles. Women deserve
- education seeing as they are in charge of morality. Wanted women to be allowed
- to function in both private and public sector.
- Quaker, played a role in abolition, as a way to get women into the
- public. Can’t say women are less intelligent when they are denied education.