Bio 106 exam 2

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Bio 106 exam 2
2012-12-11 22:39:34
bio106 exam

Bio106 exam 2
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  1. which   of the following trees depicts the same relationship among species as shown above?
  2.  What does the circled part of the phylogenetic tree above indicate ?
    an adaptive radiation and rapid speciation.
  3. Refer to figure 25.4  Male reproductive success , measured as the number of the offsrping surviving to adulthood (pupating), is found for two related beetle species and graphed above. which of these statements would you expect to be trueof sexual dimorphism in the two species?
    Species A should have greater sexual dimorphism than species B.
  4.  For biologists studying a large flatworm population in the lab , which hardy - Weinberg condition is most difficult to meet ?
    No Mutation
  5. For biologist studying a small fish population in a lab , which hardy - Weinberg condition is the easiest to meet?
    No gene flow
  6. Wikelski and Romero (2003) found that large marine iguanas had higher reproductive success than smaller iguanas did. However , the large iguanas were generally in poor body condition because they could not eat enough ; at higher temperatures their foraging efficiency improved, allowing them to eat more . Thus wikelski and Romero hypothesize that iguanas size will________ as global warming gradually increases air and water tempura tires in the Galápagos Islands .
  7.  Currently, the only predators of Galapagos marine iguanas are the Galapagos hawks. Iguana body size is not correlated with the risk of hawk predation , although small iguanas can sprint faster than large iguanas . If predators (e.g. Cats ) that preferably catch and eat slower iguanas are introduced to the island , iguanas body size is likely to ________ to the absence of others factors; the iguanas would then be under ________ selection.
    Decrease ; directional
  8. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder in homozygous human that typically cause death in the early 30's . Over time , we would expect the f allele frequency to _________ for this trait .
  9. Three spines stickleback fish (gasterosteues aculeatus) show substantial heritable variation in gill raker length . Fish caught in open water tend to have longer gill rakers and eat different foods than do those caught in the shallower water . Longer gill rakers appear to function better for capturing open water prey. Which of the following types of selection is most likely to be found in a large lake (open water in the middle and shallow water around the sides ) with the high density of these fish ?
    Disruptive selection
  10.  A biologist doing a long term study on a wild spiders population observes increased variation in silk thickness . Which of the following could the spider pop. Be experiencing ?
    Disruptive Selection
  11. In a small pop. Of alpine foxes , you observed increased ear length over a 10 year period . Can you concluded that increase in ear length is advantageous in this pop?
  12. Which of the following is the most predictable outcome of increased gene flow between two pop?
    Decreased genetic difference between the two pop .
  13. Mutation is not only evolutionary mechanism that _______.  
     Does little to change allele frequencies
  14. In 1986 a nuclear power accident in Chernobyl , USSR (now Ukraine ) , led to high radiation levels for miles surrounding the plant. The high levels of radiations caused elevated mutation rates in the surviving organisms , and evolutionary biologist have been studying rodent pop. In the Chernobyl area ever since. Based on your understanding of evolutionary mechanisms , which off the following most likely occurred in the rent pop . Following the accident ?
    Mutations led to increased genetic variations
  15. Why doesn't inbreeding depression by itself , cause evolution ?
    It does not change the pop 's allele frequencies .
  16. In some jacana species , males take care of the eggs and young , and females compete among themselves for territories that contain one several males . Female jacana are significantly larger than males . Which of these statements would you predict to be true of this bird species ? 1.male jacanas fitness is primary limited by inability to take care of eggs and raise young .2. Female jacana fitness is limited by the number of males in her territories with which a female mates.3. Variations in reproductive success should be greater in male jacana than in females .4.variations in reproductive success should be greater in female jacana than in males 5. Males and females have equal variations in reproductive success .
  17. A rare species of newt is being studied by a young evolutionary biologist .she observes that females newt lay unusually large yolky eggs , but they abandon their nest a soon as the eggs are laid. Males , on the other hand , defend the territories around the nest and regularly bring the baby newts insects to feed on. The males also sleep with the babies to keep them warmer during the cool nights . Which of the following statements is MOST LIKELY to be true of these newt ?
    The males are choosy about which females to mate with.
  18. The two pop are ________
     A different subspecies under the morphospecies concept
  19. Refer to the figure 26.1 "above which of the following forms a mono phyletic group ?
    E, f g They are all connected like a branches with leaves
  20. The peppered moth provides a well known examples of natural selection. The light colored for of the moth was predominant in England before the industrial revolution . In the mid nineteenth century a dark colored form appeared. The difference is produced by a dominant allele of one gene . By about 1990 , approximately 90 % of the moth around industrial areas were dark colored . Whereas light color moths were still still abundant elsewhere . Apparently , birds could readily find the light moths against soot darkened background in industrial area and and there fore eating the light moths . Recently use of cleaner fuels has greatly reduced soot in the landscape , and the dark colored moths have been disappearing . Should the two forms of moths be considered separate species ?
  21. the snake family typhlopidae consist of small , burrowing species with vestigial eyes. They are found in Australia, sub-Saharan Africa , India and some adjacent areas and South America . What is the most likely explanation for this distribution ?
    Origin on Gondwana followed by continent drift and some range expansion
  22. How are two different species most likely to evolve from one ancestral species ?
    Allopatrically , after the ancestral species has split into two pop.
  23. Which of the following does not tend to promote speciation ?
    Gene flow
  24. Why is speciation by polyploidy more likely in plants than in animals ?
    Plants gametes can produced from somatic cells that have undergone rounds of mitosis.
  25.  Which of the following statements explains why animals are less likely than plants speciate by polyploidy ?
    Animals self fertilize less often than plants ,so diploid gametes are less likely to fuse.
  26.  If a plant species with 2n= 14 forms an all polyploid with a plants species with 2n= 18 , what would be the likely diploid (2n) number of the allopolyploid ?
  27. Two groups of lizards that have long been living in allopatry have recently been reintroduced in the wild . When members of opposite groups mate , the hybrids are almost always inviable . Which of the following could be expected to occur over the long term if the pop remain in sympatry?
    Behavioral forms of isolation will develop
  28. The common edible frog of Europe is a hybrid between two species , rana lessonae and rana riddibunda . The hybrid were first described in1758 and have a distribution , from France across Central Europe to Russia. Both male and female hybrids exist , but when they mate among themselves , they are rarely successful in producing offspring . What can you infer from this information ?  
    Postzygotic isolation exist between the two frog species
  29.  Two species of tree frogs that live sympatrically in the northeastern United States differ in ploidy : hyla chrysocelis is diploid , and hyla veriscolor is tetraploid . The frogs are identical in appearances ; but their mating calls , which females use to find mates , differ. Which difference most likely evolved first?
  30. Imagine two North American ground cricket species that contact each other as the southern species moves northward during a period of global warming . These two species do not mate much , due to differences I. Their courtship songs. The norton cricket doesn't seem to to late the warmer temperatures well but is limited in its ability to move north because it does not normally disperse much. Bed on this information , which is the most likely outcome?
    Extinction of one of the species .
  31. The phonetic approach to estimating phylogenetic trees is most like the approach of which species concept ?
    Morphospecies concept
  32.  Your professor wants you to constructs a phylogenetic tree of orchids . She gives you tissue from seven orchid species and one lily . What is the most likely reason she gave you the lily .
    To serve as an outgroup
  33. Which of the following statement best describes the rationale for applying the principle of parsimony in constructing phylogenetic trees?
    Similarity due to common ancestry should be more common then similarity due to convergent evolution .
  34. Which of the following statement is true about a phylogeny , represented by a phylogenetic tree ?
    None of the above answers are correct .
  35. Which listing of geological periods is in the correct order , from oldest to most recent ?
    Cambrian , Devonian , Permian , Cretaceous
  36.  You are the lucky student of wacky professor who develops a times machine and he asks if you will test it with him . You get in and there's an immediate glitch - the date read out fails so that when you land you're not sure what era you're in . Your professor begins to panic , but you see something that tells you , you're in the Cenozoic era. Which following would that be ?
    A rabbit eating a daisy .
  37.  Which statement best describes why the Cambrian explosion was important ?
    Because there was an explosion in ecological diversity among animals
  38. Which of the following key adaptations is found in many animals from the Burgess Shale fauna but not found in the doushantuo and ediacarans faunas ?
     Mouth parts
  39.  Which if the following likely has the most hox genes ?
  40. What is the thought to be the significance of the duplication of homeotic genes ?
     compared to jellyfish , the increased number of genes made evolution of more complex body forms possible
  41. All of the following events can trigger an adaptive radiation except
     A vicariance event splitting the habitat
  42.  Islands are well known for having many endemic species -species that are uniques to that location . What is a likely explanation for this pattern ?.
    Colonizer a encounter fewer competitors on an island , so they can diversify
  43. What organism are most numerous earth ?
  44. What do bacteria have in common with archaea but not with eukarya ?
    Absence of nucleus
  45. While examining a rock surface , you have discovered an interesting new organism . Which of the following criteria will allow you to classify the organism as belonging to bacteria but not archaea or eukarya ?
    Cells wall are made primarily of peptidoglycan
  46. What is the goal of bioremediation ?
    Clean up areas polluted with toxic compounds by using bacteria
  47. Two pop of birds with somewhat different coloration live on opposite sides of a peninsula . The habitat between the pop is not suitable for these birds. When birds from the two pop are brought together , they produce young whose appearance is in terminate between the two parents . These offspring a of these will breed with each other or with birds from either parent pop and all offspring of these pairings appear intermediate to various degrees . What keeps the two pollution separate ?
    Spatial Isolation
  48. The cladistic approach to estimating phylogenetic trees is most like the approach of which species concept ?
    Phylogenetic species concept