Final Exam 2 ch. 16-22

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Final Exam 2 ch. 16-22
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2012-12-12 13:15:11
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Final exam 2-ch 16-22
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  1. buccal cavity
    oral cavity
  2. gingiva
    gums
  3. bumps on tongue, contain taste buds
    papillae
  4. the nerve networks in the submucosa are called
    regulates secretions
    meissner's plexus aka submucosal plexus
  5. the portion of the entric nervous sysstem in this layer and some it its millions of neurons receive autonmic impulses
    Auerbach's plexus aka myentric plexus
  6. Bile acts as an emulsifying agent in the digestive tract by dispersing ingested fats into small globules.
    large globules are broken down to smaller globules
    emulsify
  7. circular folds, are macroscopic folds of the mucosa and sumucosa, somewhat like accordion pleats
    Plica circulares
  8. its the longitudinal smooth muscles layer of the colon is in thress bands called
    taeniae coli
  9. the vitamins absorbed are those produced by what are also called trillions of bacteria that live in the colon.
    normal flora
  10. breaking down with teeth, tongue
    mechanical
  11. starts with saliva has enzynmes, stomach acid
    chemical
  12. Digestive System
    • Ingestion
    • Digestion
    •    Mechanical
    •    Chemical
    •    Absorption
    •    Movement/Mixing
    •    Elimination/Excretion
    •    Production
  13. where are the sphincters
    • lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter)
    • Pyloric sphincter
    • internal anal sphincter
    • external anal sphincter
  14. lingual lipase
    breaks fats down
  15. amylase
    breaks down starches
  16. Pepsin
    breaks proteins to polypeptides
  17. trypsin
    breaks polypeptides to peptides
  18. peptidases
    breaks down peptides to amino acids
  19. sucrase
    breaks down sucrose to glucose and fructose
  20. maltase
    breaks maltose to glucose
  21. Lactase
    breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose
  22. small stomach
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  23. large intestine
    • secum
    • ascending
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
    • anus
  24. absorption of small intestine
    • water
    • alchohol
    • B12
    • other vitamins
    • carbohydrates
  25. what enzyme digest proteins
    pepsin
  26. building up molecules
    anabolism
  27. breaking down larger molecules into smaller building blocks
    releases energy also produces heat and work
    catabolism
  28. sum of all chemical processes in the body. mixture of taking energy to break food molecules down and geting energy from that and release enery
    energy exchange thorughout the body
    metabolism
  29. heat from body is transfered to cooler objects not touching the skin
    radiation
  30. loss of heat to cooler air or objects such as clothing, that touch the skin.
    conduction
  31. the air currents move the warmer air away from the skin surface and facilitate the loss of heat."wind chill factor"
    convection
  32. substances that may cause a fever are called
    pyrogens
  33. the inflammatory chemicals are called
    endogenous pyrogens
  34. a medication such as aspirin, that lowers a fever
    antipyretic
  35. cytochrome transport chain aka
    electron transport chain
  36. what is cytochrome
    • FAD and NAD
    • carrier molecules
  37. to get rid of a hydrogen is
    deamination
  38. storgage form of glucose (C6H12Oc)
    glycogen
  39. not enough oxygen.
    anaerobic pathway
    glycolytic
  40. aerobic pathway
    have more oygen
    oxidative pathway
  41. heat production
    • thyroxine
    • epinephrine
    • skeletal muscles
    • Liver
    • food intake
    • higher body temp.
  42. heat loss
    • skin
    • respiratiory tract
    • urinary tract
    • digestive tract
    • sweat
    • vasodilation of blood vessels in skin
  43. what are the 3 steps to cell respiration
    • Glycolysis
    • Krebs Cycle
    • Electron transport chain
  44. what is the role of carrier molecule NAD and FAD
    to transport H+
  45. what does Calorie measures
    • = 1 kilocalorie
    • = 1,000 calories
    • = Kcal
  46. complete proteins
    contains all amino acids
  47. incomplete proteins are
    veg. fruits & nuts
  48. mineral invovled in teeth, bones, coenzyme, energy production. help relax muscles, bowel function
    magnewium Mg
  49. involved in teeth, bones, ATP, part of DNA, RNA is a buffer system in body that balance pH in the body
    phosphorus
  50. function is fluid balance, maintain nerve muscle signals
    allsow signals to travel through out body
    part of buffer system
    Sodium (na+)
  51. located behind the peritoneum
    retroperitoneal
  52. receives fluid and electrolytes (filtrate)
    Bowman's Capsule
  53. what is the outermost layer of the kidney
    capsule
  54. carry toward a center or a main part
    afferent
  55. to carry away from a center or a main part
    efferent
  56. the cells that form the inner layer of Bowman's capsule of therenal corpuscle adjacent foot processes form pores that make the layer very permeable
    podocytes
  57. the capillaries that surround the renal tubule and receive the useful materials reabsorbed from the renal filtrate; carry blood form the efferent arteriole to the renal vein
    peritubular capillaries
  58. cell drinking. reabsorption proteins back into cells
    pinocytosis
  59. is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically,
    it estimates how much blood passes through the tiny filters in the
    kidneys, called glomeruli, each minute
    GFR -Glomerular filtration rate
  60. A chemical compound that may be used to inhibit the tubular reabsorption
    of ions from glomerular filtrate, especially sodium ions, thereby
    resulting in greater amounts of that ion in the urine.
    natriuretic
  61. Medicine that increases the amount of urine produced and relieves excess
    fluid buildup in body tissues. Diuretics may be used in treating high
    blood pressure, lung disease, premenstrual syndrome, and other
    conditions.
    diuretic
  62.  an antidiuretic hormone, produced in hypothalamic nuclei and
    stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, that suppresses
    urine formation by permitting the resorption of water-collecting ducts
    in the kidneys.
    antidiuretic
  63. pertaining to an area near or adjacent to the afferent and efferent arterioles of the kidney glomerulus
    juxtaglomerular
  64. A triangle or trigonum.2. The first three dominant cusps of an upper molar tooth.
    trigone
  65. bladder muscle
    detrusor muscle
  66. voiding
    micturition
  67. Abnormally slight or infrequent urination.
    oliguria
  68. Excessive passage of urine, as in diabetes.
    polyuria
  69. what are the functions of the kidney
    • the formation of urine
    • regulate volume of blood, electrolyte, base balance of blood
    • secretion of renin, erythropoitin, activation of Vit D
  70. which molecules are regulated by kidneys to balance pH
    Na+ Sodium
  71. increases reabsorption of water from the filtrate to the blood
    • ADH-Antidiuretic hormone
    • (posterior pituitary)
  72. increases reabsorption of Ca+2 ions from filtrate t othe blood and excretion of phosphate ions into the filtrate.
    • PTH- paratyroid hormone
    • parathyroid glands
  73. increases reabsorption of Na+ ions from the filtrate to the boood and excretion of K+ ions into the filtrate. Wate is reabsorbed following the reaborption of sodium
    • Aldosterone
    • adrenal cortex
  74. decrease reabsorption of Na+ ions, wich remain in the filtrate. More sodium and water are eliminated in urine
    • ANP-Atrial natriuretic peptide
    • atria of heart
  75. the renin-angiotensin mechanism
    • decrease blood pressure stimulates the kineys to secrete renin.
    • Renin splits the plasma protein angiotensiongen (synthesized by liver to angiotensin I
    • angiotensin I is changed to angiotensin II
    • Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriciton and stimulates the adrena cortex to secret aldosterone
  76. identifying normal urine
    • amount
    • color
    • specific gravity
    • pH
    • compositiion
    • nitrogenous wastes
  77. is a mineral that takes on a charge when its dissolved in water
    electrolytes
  78. positive charge ion
    cation
  79. charge particle
    ion
  80. negatively charge ion
    anion
  81. pair of molecule which can counter act acids or bases
    buffer system
  82. water intake vs. output
    equal 2500 mL
  83. what are the 3 buffer system
    • bicarbonate
    • phsphate
    • protein
  84. reproductive cell
    sperm or eggs
    gametes
  85. gamete formation (sex cell formation)
    meosis
  86. 1st fertilized cell
    product of fertilization
    zygote
  87. site of sperm production
    spermatogenesis
    seminiferous tubules
  88. a supporting epithelial cell which lacks a specialist function
    sustentacular (Sertoli) cell
  89. A cell that occurs between the germ cells of the gonads and that may furnish the male sex hormone
    interstitial cell (cells of Leydig)
  90. the caplike, membrane-bound structure covering the anterior portion of
    the head of a spermatozoon; it contains enzymes for penetrating the
    oocyte
    acrosomes
  91. A long, narrow, convoluted tube in the spermatic duct system that lies
    on the posterior aspect of each testicle and connects with the vas
    deferens.
    epididymis
  92. estrogen, progesterone, produces hormones within the ovaries
    placenta produces during pregnancy.
    pregnancy test
    corpus lutenum
  93. structure within which ovuum develops
    follicle
  94. fingerlike structure which receive ovuum
    fimbriae
  95. implantation in uterin tube
    ectopic pregnancy
  96. ectopic
    away place
  97. white fibrous tissue that replaces the regressing corpus luteum in the human ovary in the latter half of pregnancy, or soon after ovulation when pregnancy does not supervene.
    corpus albican
  98. mitosis 46 chromosomes
    daughter cells
                  46
               46   46
  99. meosis 46 chromosomes
                   46
              23      23
  100. A membrane that partially or completely covers the vaginal opening
    hymen
  101. the external genital organs of the female, including the mons pubis,
    labia majora and minora, clitoris, and vestibule of the vagina.
    vulvA
  102. The absence of menstrual periods is called
    lack of flow
    amenorrhea
  103. what are the 3 layers of the uterus
    • epimetriu- outside
    • myometrium- muscular wall
    • endometrium- inner lininge
  104. which layer affects menstrual cycle
    endometrium
  105. regulates hormones
    ovulatory cycle
  106. the shedding of the endometrium of the uterus
    menstrual cycle
  107. occurs about 14 days after the menstrual cycle and is when ovulation occurs (release of an oocyte, or egg)
    ovarian cycle
  108. change in acrosome which allows sperm to penetrate ovuum
    capacitation
  109. union of sperm and ovuum
    fertilization
  110. time period of whole pregnancy
    gestation
  111. immature placenta
    group of cells that becomese or develops into the placenta
    chorion
  112. hCG
    human chorionic gonadotropin
  113. what is the hormone produced bychorian (placenta) itself
    hCG
  114. parturition
    birth
  115. full copy of DNA
    genome
  116. section of DNA which codes for a specific trait
    gene
  117. expression of a gene
    what you inheret from your parents
    what outcome you inherited
    allele
  118. the other 22 chromosomes
    the 22 chromosomes minus the sex chromosomes is known as
    autosomes
  119. genetic makeup
    genotype
  120. how you actually look
    your actual expression of your genetic makeup
    phenotype
  121. the gene that will be expressed if its present
    dominant gene
  122. in order for the gene to be expressed there needs to be 2 copies for the gene to be expressed
    recessive gene
  123. a pair of chromosomes, one maternal and one paternal, that contain genes for the same characteristics
    homologous pair
  124. an embryonic membrane that holds the fetus suspended in amniotic fluid; fuses with the chorion by the end of the 3rd month of gestation
    amnion
  125. skin, hair, nails, sweat glands
    nervous system, pituatary gland, adrenal medulla
    eyes, ears,
    mucosa of oral and nasal cavity
    ectoderm
  126. muscular connective tissue, kidneys, bone marrow, blood, lymphatic, bone, cartlige
    mesoderm
  127. digestive and respiratory tract
    lungs, liver, pancreas, thyroid gland
    stomach, intestines
    endoderm
  128. the simplest animal-like microorganisms in the kingdom Protista; usually unicellular
    some are colonial
    may be free living or parasitic
    small microscopic organism
    Protozoa
  129. microbe, amoeba, giardia, leishmania, malaria, are examples of
    protozoa
  130. helminths
    worms
  131. insects
    vectors for protozoa or bacteria
    invertebrate animals characterized by an exoskeleton and jointed appendages; includes insects, spiders, ticks, mites, and crustaceans
    arthropod
  132. an arthropod that transmits pathogens from host to host, usually when it bites to obtain blood
    vector
  133. the ability of a microorganism to cause disease
    the degree of pathogenicity
    virulence
  134. the total of all of the body's defeses against pathogens;
    includes the non-specific aspects of innate immunity such as unbroken skin and the specific mechanism of adaptive immunity such as anti-body production
    resistance
  135. container for infection
    reproduction of pathogen
    reservoir
  136. time between infection and signs and symptoms appears
    incubation
  137. infection all over body
    systemic
  138. objective finding, Temp. WBC count
    signs
  139. subjective findings
    felt by patient
    symptoms
  140. the presence of bacteria in the blood
    septicemia
  141. an infection acquired in a hospital or other healthcare institution
    nosocomial infection
  142. tinea corporis
    ringworm
  143. tinea cruris
    • jock itch
    • diaper rash
  144. tinea pedis
    athletes foot
  145. mycosis
    fungal infection
  146. saprophytes
    • dead matter
    • rotten plant
  147. study of fungi
    mycology
  148. always present in population
    ex. cold, cold sores, yeast infection
    endemic
  149. localized outbreak, periodic outbreak locally
    ex. flu, west nile virus
    epidemic
  150. worldwide outbreak
    pandemic
  151. infection that comes from something living similiar to vector
    infection spread from a vector
    diseases of animals that may be transmitted to people under certain conditions
    zoonosis
  152. inanimate objects capable of transmitting infectious microorganisms from one host to another.
    fomites
  153. a machine that uses steam under pressure for sterilization
    autoclave
  154. a bacterial form that is dormant and highly resistant to environmental extremes such as heat
    a unicellular fungal repoductive form
    spore
  155. the protein shell of a virus
    is the little capsule around the virus made of protein
    capsid
  156. an organism that lives on dead organic matter
    a decomoser
    saprophyte
  157. means have to have a host and cant live without a host
    obligate parasite
  158. resident flora
    • bacteria is always present
    • resident means normal
  159. bacteria that live in our bodies for a short time
    short term resident
    transient flora
  160. will wait till immune function is low and cause a disease is known as
    opportunitstic pathogen
  161. coccus
    round
  162. bacillus
    rod-shaped
  163. spirillum
    spiral
  164. diplo
    pairs
  165. strepto
    chains
  166. staphylo
    clusters
  167. how are bacteria classified
    by shape and grouped
  168. prokaryote
    • DNA is not contained in nucleus
    • NO Nucleus
  169. eukaryote
    have nucleus
  170. cleans with soap and water
    sanitize
  171. cleans with chemical agent
    disinfect
  172. kills all pathogens using heat-steam or boiling
    sterilization
  173. listerine, hydrogen peroxide, garlic oil are examples of
    antiseptic
  174. a protein which disrupts viral replication
    interferon
  175. bacteria the take stains
    gram positive
  176. bacteria that will not take stains
    gram negative
  177. bacteris that are  not inhibited in either situation
    they are able to reproduce in either the presence or absense oxygen
    facultatively anaerobic
  178. infection is on that is confined to one area of the body
    localized
  179. bacteria in the blood is called
    bacteremia
  180. serious infection where immune defeses have been completely overwhelmed and are unable to stop the spread of the pathogen
    septicemia
  181. infection made possible by primary infection that has lowered the host's resistance
    secondary infection
  182. infection generated from within
    endogenous

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