AP Biology Signaling Pathways (Cell Communication)
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The signals that cells send and receive come from 2 places. What are they?
- The Enviornment
- Other Cells
How are signals transmitted?
Signals are transmitted across the cell membrane, either by crossing the membrane itself or interacting with receptor proteins.
What is a signaling pathway?
Proteins that relay a signal to its destination
How do signaling pathways differ?
Few or many steps, some branch off and send signals to many different places, others do not
Once the signal reaches its target molecule, what are some ways the cell may respond?
- Activate an enzyme that breaks down a large molecule
- Direct a vesicle to fuse with the plasma membrane and release its contents to the outside of the cell
- Direct actin molecules to assemble into a filament allowing the cell to change shape
- Carrier protein delivers a signal to a nuclear pore where it can enter the nucleus and turn a gene on or off
How do cells integrate multiple signals?
Through Cross Talk
What systems are involved when our body perceives danger or a threat?
What part of the brain receives the signal first?
Once the signal reaches the Amygdala, what two things happen?
- The Amygdala fires off a nerve impulse to the hypothalamus
- The hypothalamus then sends a chemical signal to another part of the brain called the pituitary gland
Where is the adrenal gland located?
On top of the Kidneys
What is released into the blood stream during the Fight or Flight Response and what is a more common name for it?
How do we get energy during a flight or fight response?
Production of Epinephrine
Give 3 examples of what Epinephrine does in the body.
- Speeds up pacemaker cells
- Relaxes Muscles in Lungs
- Produces Sweat
In the flight or fight response what is the third messenger that may be released?
What is the overall goal of the cell signals involved in the fight or flight response?
Increase in the circulation of energy and downshift in other parts, prepares body for extreme action
What are some ways cell communication can go wrong?
- Wrong time
- Target Cell doesnt respond
- Response without a signal
What does the pancreas release after you have eaten?
What happens in Type 1 Diabetes?
Pancreatic cells that produce insulin are lost, resulting in no production of insulin
How does multiple sclerosis prevent signals from reaching their target?
Affected Nerve Cells can no longer transmit cells from one area to another
What is Type II Diabetes?
Pancreatic Cells produce the needed insulin, but cells no longer have the ability to respond to it.
How does cancer start?
Multiple signaling breakdowns: A cell gains the ability to grow and divide even in the absence of a signal
How is asthma treated?
Asthma tells the breathing passage to shrink and it is counteracted by the medication which tells it to open/expand
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