PSYC 101

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PSYC 101
2012-12-12 11:56:01

Final Review
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  1. If you score at the 75th percentile on a standardized test, it means that:
    That 75% of those who took the test scored the same or less than you did.
  2. Francis Galton
    He took the position that intelligence is largely determined by heredity.
  3. On most modern IQ tests, a score of 115 would be...
    ONe standard deviation above the mean.
  4. IQ tests have proven to be good predictors of what?
    school performance.
  5. Evidence indicating that upbringing affects one's mental ability is provided by which of the following findings?
    Siblings reared together are more similar in IQ than siblings reared apart.
  6. Some recent studies suggest that exposure to aggressive pornography:
    may increase male's aggression behavior towards women and may perpetuate the myth that women enjoy being raped.
  7. The determinant of achievement behavior that increases when a college student enrollsin a class that is required for graduation is...
    the incentive value of success.
  8. Which of the following statements about cross-cultural comparisons of emotional experience is not true?
    Display rules do not vary from one culture to another.
  9. According to the James-Lange theory of emotion:
    Different patterns of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions.
  10. Which theory of emotion implies that people can change their emotions simply by changing the way they lavel their arousal?
    Schacter's two-factory theory
  11. Describe the James-Lang Theory
  12. Describe the Cannon-Bard Theory
  13. Describe Opponent-process theory
  14. The stage of prenatal development during which the develping organism is most vulnerable to injury is that...
    Embryonic stage
  15. Zygotic Stage
  16. Germinal Stage
  17. Fetal Stage
  18. When the development of the same subjects is studied over ap eriod of time, the study is called a?
    Longitudinal study.
  19. The quality of infant-caregiver attachment depends...
    On the interaction between the infant's temperament and the caregiver's responsiveness.
  20. During the second year of life, toddlers begin to take osme personal responsibility for feeding, dressing, and bathing themselves in an attempt to establish what Erikson calls a sense of:
  21. The portion of the brain that appears to be the last area to mature fully is the:
    Prefrontal Cortex.
  22. Males have been found to differ slightly from femalesin three well-documented areas of mental abilities.  Which of the following is not one of these?
    Intelligence is not one of them.
  23. Furious at her boss for what she considers to be unjust criticism, Tyra turns around and takes out her anger on her subordinates.  Tyra may be using the defense mechanism of:
  24. Freud believed that most personality disturbances are due to:
    Unconscious and unresolved sexual conflicts rooted in childhood experiences.
  25. Which of the following did Carl Rogers velieve fosters a congruent self-consept?
    Unconditional Love.
  26. The strongest support for the theory that personality is heavily influenced by genetics is proveded by strong personality similarity between:
    identical twins reared apart.
  27. Which of the following is not ashortcoming of self-report personality inventories?
    They are objective measures that are easy to administer and score.
  28. Stereotypes
    Are often automatic products of normal congitive processes and are widely held beliefs that peole have certian characteristics.
  29. The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency of:
    Obeservers to favor internal attributions in explaining the behavior of others.
  30. According to Hazan and Shaver (1987):
    Romantic relationships in adulthood follow the same form as attachment relationships in infancy.
  31. Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that after peole engage in conterattitudinal behavior, they will:
    Change their attitude to make it more consistent with their behavior.
  32. The elaboration lilelihood model of attitude change suggests that:
    The central route results in more enduring attituede change
  33. The results of Milgram's (1963) study imply that:
    Many people will obey an authority figure even if innocent people get hurt.
  34. THe brain structure responsible for initiating action along the tow major pathways through which the brain sends signals to the endocrine system is the:
  35. Which personality trait seems to be most strongly related to increased coronary risk?
  36. Many students develop colds and other minor ailments during final exams.  This probably happens because:
    Stress can suppress immune functioning.
  37. Research has found that optimists are more likely than pessimists to:
    Engage in action-oriennted, problem-focused coping skills.
  38. According to Albert Ellis, problematic emotional reactions are caused by:
    Catastrophic thinking.
  39. According to Thomas Szasz, abnormal behavior usually involves:
    Behavior that deviates from social norms.
  40. A concordance rate indicates:
    the percentage of relatives who exhibit the same disorder.
  41. People who consistently exhibit ________ thinking are more vulnerable to depression than others.
    negative, pessimistic
  42. Most of the drugs that are useful in the treatment of schizophrenia are known to dampen _________ activity in the brain, suggesting the developmen tof the disorder.
  43. The diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder would apply to an individual who:
    Is callous,, impulsive, and manipulative.
  44. Involuntary commitment to a psychiatric facility:
    Usually occurs because people appear to be a danger to themselves or others.
  45. Those who embrace a realtivistic view of psychological disorders would agree that:
    the criteria of mental illness vary considerably across cultures.
  46. The key process in client-centered therapy is:
    clarification of the client's feelings.
  47. The goal of behavior therapy is to:
    reduce or eliminate problematic responses by using conditioning techniques.
  48.  Collectively, numerous studies of theapeutic outcome sugget that:
    insight therapy is superior to no treatment or placebo treatment.
  49. Systematic desensitization is an effective treatment for______.
    Phobic or phobias.
  50. Linda's theraptis has her practice active listening skills in structured role-playing exercises.  Later, Linda is gradually asked to practice these skills with family members, friends, and finally, her boss.  Linda is undergoing:
    Social skills training.
  51. Th community mental health movement emphasizes what?
    Local care and the prevention of spychological disorders.
  52. SA
    Definition of reliability and validity.

    Also, how do they relate to psychologicial tests?
    Reliability (consistency) - the measurement consitency of a test or of other kinds of measurement techniques.

    Validity - The ability of atest to meausre what it was designed to measure.

    Many psychological tests attempt to meausre abstract personal qualities (i.e. creativity, intelligence, or independence) and this can only be done with construct-validity.  Construct validity  - the extent to which evidence shows that a test measure a particular hypothetical construct.
  53. SA

    Name and define 3 types of validity and include examples of each.
    Content Validity - refers to the degree to which the content of a test is presentativ eof the doman it's supposed to cover.

    Example - test exam that has questions that were not covered in class.

    Criterion-Related Validity - is estimated by correlating subjects' scores on a test with teir scores on an independent criterion (another measure)

    Example - a pilots test that measure aptitude could be correlated with their performance as a pilot.

    Construct Validity - the extent to which evidence shows that a test measures a partidular hypothetical contruct.

    Example - this usualy requires a series of studies that examine the correlations between the test and various measure realted to the trait in question.
  54. Sexual Motivation and Behavior - know the phases of human sexual response cycle
    Excitement Phase - physical arises rapidlyl usually rapidly (i.e. muscle tension and rise in respiration)

    Plateau Phase - Physiological arousal usually continues to build, but at a much slower pace.

    Orgasm Phase - Orgasm occurs when sexual arousal reaches its peak intensity and is discharged through the pelvic area.

    Resolution Phase - Physiological changes produced by sexual arousal subside. If orgasm has not occured then reduction in tension will be slow.
  55. SA
    Explain what attributions are and describee difference between internal and external attributions.
    People try to make sense of things they see other people do.  Something people have done wrong.

    Social attributions -

    Attributions are inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behavior, and their own behavior.

    Internal - ascribe the cause of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings.

    External - ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental contraints.

    Example - if a friends business fails then you might attribute it to the fact that they are not very business saavy; however, if you fail at a business you would contribute it to the fact that the economy is doing bad.
  56. SA
    Define stress and describe 4 contributing factors to stress and an example of each
    Stress - anything that effects ones ability to copy with situations.

    Frustration - the pursuit of some goal is thwarted. - When you want something and you can't have it.

    Conflict - when two or more motivations compete for expression.  When you have say a doctors appointment and class at the same time and you know you can't make it to both, but you need to be at both and then are forced to choose between the two.

    Change - significant alterans in ones living circumstantces that require readjustment.  Ex. - moving 400 miles away from home to go to college.

    Pressure - inolves expectationsor demands that one behave in a certain way.  Ex.  when you try to execute tasks quickly and accurately.
  57. SA
    3 levels of peoples responses to stress
    Coping - behavioral response - active efforrts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress.

    Give up and blame ones self - some people routinely respond to stress with fatalism.  Learned helplessness -  passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events.

    Agression can also be a response to stress.  any behavior that is intended to hurt somone either physically or verbally.
  58. SA
    Describe 3 criterion used to determine if a particular behavior is abnormal or not.
    Deviance - when behavior deviates from what society consideres acceptable.

    Maladaptive - when their everyday adaptive behavior is imparied.  for example a drug addict.

    Personal Distress - when people can't cope with daily life.  i.e. depression or anxiety sufferers.
  59. SA
    Describe 3 major approaches to treatment of psychological disorders.
    Insight therapies - talk therapy

    behavior therapies - work to change behaviors and not just talk about it.

    Biomedical therapies - this would include drub therapy or shock therapy and this would involve intervening in ones biological functioning.