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Who wrote the New Testament Gospels?
Who was John the Baptist?
- An apocalyptic prophet, who baptized Jesus and was executed by the ruler of Galilee.
- Jesus was a disciple of John
Who were the Nazarenes?
- The original core group from which Christianity grew and spread.
- Initially they still considered themselves to be Jews, but were the first group of people to believe that Jesus was the Messiah.
Gospel of Mark.
- John the Baptist
- Adult ministry, Jewish practice
- Conviction, Resurrection
- Greek and Jewish markers
- Re-appearance (some versions)
- 60-70 C.E.
Gospel of Luke.
- John the Baptist
- Medicine, "Virgin"
- Greek/Gentile Audience
- Book of Acts
- 70-80 C.E.
Gospel of Matthew.
- Jewish audience
- Torah citations
- "Virgin birth"
- 80-90 C.E.
Gospel of John
- Not synoptic
- Cosmic significance
- The "New Adam" (Humanity or "I am of the blood" "Human 2.0") (Ben Adam=son of man in Hebrew)
- 90-100 C.E.
Who was Paul?
- Pharisee, Apostle to the Gentiles (non-Jews)
- Said Jesus is a specific descendent of King David (Hebrew) but a universal savior (Greek/Gentile)
- Life in the Spirit rather than the flesh
Who was Marcion?
- rejected Hebrew Canon, Judaism and its laws
- taught that the world was created by an inferior, evil deity
- the Tanakh is the record of this inferior God. Jesus was sent from 'higher' to rescue souls
- Promoted his own Gospel and Pauline writings as the only true teachings. The villians of the Old Testament are heroes of the new
Name the five locations of the early Christian church.
Material Artifact: The Didache.
- "Teaching of the twelve"
- Dated to 1st/2nd Century C.E.
- Reveals how Jewish-Christians saw themselves
- Outlines the offices of congregations (bishop, priest, deacon) the roles of men and women
- A manuel of worship for Baptism and the Eucharist (the two most important sacraments)
- Recommends Jewish derived prayer, Paternoster ("Our Father") prayer 3x per day
- Eucharist (Greek for Thanksgiving) for church members only + special prayer after
- Describes the end of the world
What does Paternoster mean?
- Latin for "Our Father"
- State Patron
What does ICTHYUS "Iesous Christos, Theouhouios, Soter" mean?
- It means "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior"
- Served as the "safe word/phrase" during hidden meetings
- ICTHYUS literally means "fish" in Greek, thus the symbol
Council of Nicea (325 C.E.)
- established Jesus as son of God
- father and son are coeternal, coequal
- established doctrine of homoousion ("of same substance" as the father
- dealt with the Christ's divinity (vs. humanity)
- one substance playing three roles ("personas")
Council of Chalcedon (451 C.E.)
- held that Christ is both fully human as well as fully divine at the same time
- two natures united in one essence
- some non-Chalcedonian churches still exist
- dealt with the Christ's humanityone person, two natures; fully divine, fully human
- reading: Chalcedon Creed "we teach one Christ-Son in 2 natures without transmuting...dividing...or contrasting"
The Great Schism.
- Latin empire struggles in West, Greek (Byzantium) flourishes in East
- Culture/language divide grows wider
- Theology/Politics was cracking point
- Filioque ("and the son") added to creeds in Latin church without universal council ("Apostles Creed")
- Could not agree on the Trinity (Split in 1054)
Son <-- Father --> Holy Spirit
Eastern Orthodoxy (a.k.a. Byzantine Christianity)
- made its way to Eastern Europe (Russia)
- encouraged use of local languages, strong national/ethnic identities
- no councils since the Great Schism
- Emphasizes use of Icons (Visuality)
- As it moves, it creates a church in each place (ex: Russian orthodox, Greek orthodox, etc.) called Autocephalous - each church is in charge of its own church
- Full communion - all orthodox churches are welcoming to other orthodox churches (NOT Roman Catholic)
- Some Uniate Churches work with both Orthodoxy and Catholocism
The Crusades "Just War" vs. "Jihad"
- Pilgrimage + Religious War
- East + West 'Christendom' against "Dar-al-Islam"
- Rise of Islam led Orthodox (East) to call Catholics (West) for help
- Four major "Crusades"
- encouraged militristic development of Jihad,
- slaughtered Christians, major trade routes opened, papel authority strengthened, internal dissent silenced
- Ultimately destroyed relations between Eastern and Western churches
- Also internal 'crusades' against European 'heretics'
- Christians and musims gave as good as they got; Jewish took it from both
- Series of reform attempts between 14th-17th centuries
- Martin Luther (monk) and Henry VIII (King of England)
List the four basis of Protestantism (Religion of the World).
- 1. Sola Scriptura - the bible/scripture alone
- 2. Sola Fide - faith alone
- 3. Priesthood of all Believers - every believer is own priest
- 4. Moral action in the world - led by faith
Henry VIII (King of England)
- declared himself head of church so he could divorce his wife
- Religion: Anglicans/Episcopalians/Church of England
Material Artifact: King James Bible
- The 'English Reformation'
- Bible of choice for Protestant Christians and Mormons
- Renowned for its poetic majesty, but often criticized nowadays for its translations of Hebrew and Greek
- Angelicans, Presbyterians, Lutherans
- longer histories (back in Europe)
- deeper roots (16th-17th century)
- work for common social justice
- sin is more a social phenomena and conditional rather than individual
- Baptists, Methodists, Pentecostals
- arose during 18th century in Britain and colonies (Pent. in 20th)
- emphasize "Personal Experience of God"
- see sin as more personal than social
Reading: Ausburg Confession (Lutheran)
- free justification through faith
- doctrine of the gospel, administration of the sacraments
- saints (holy women/men) are models, not mediators
- return of clerical marriages (condemned since 12th century)
Reading: London (Particular) Baptist Confession
- the Christ purchased salvation for the elect (people destined for salvation)
- preaching requires no institutional sanction or support
- all churches can choose/expel their own officials without external authority
- sacraments for professing believers only
Who is Joseph Smith?
- Started Mormon religion
- Angel Moroni told him to find records of Christ in America buried in ground
- gold plates: hieroglyphics, seer stones
- articles of ancient Hebrew priesthood
The Mormon Restoration
- Started by Joseph Smith
- Started in NY (area of revivalism)
- Book of Mormon (1830)
- 12-14 million worldwide (most outside of US)
"The Restoration": The Book of Mormon
- Established Hebrew origins of Native Americans (from remnants of Assyrian/Babylonian invasion)
- Gave the USA a biblical past
- Sees God acting in history through Amerindians
- God continues to 'speak' through prophets
- Restoration of the "Primitive Church"
- The United States was destined to be a 'New Jerusalem'
Catholicism: Vatican II (1962-1965)
- "Throwing open the windoes of the church"
- use of the vernacular languages instead of Latin
- priest now faces the congregation
- more audience participation
- local flavor, relaxed dress
- revive the role of scripture as authority
- regret for split with Orthodox church
- criticism: "Nuns in jeans playing guitar"
Orthodox Christianity: End of Communism
- most significant recent event for orthodox churches
- ended official control of state churches
- churches were the only institutions left
- revived ethnic tensions and anti-semitism
- Bosnian war and the Serbian orthodox church (Serbian government "cleaned out religions in Bosnia" (1992-95)
Jesus in Roman Catholicism
- sin is an infinite chasm separating God and Humans..therefore..
- only a Human Christ can embody and represent "humanity" (Ben Adam)
- but only a divine Christ can bridge the gap of sin (logos)
- Christ must be both divine and human at the same time
Jesus in Catholicism
- Christ is the Head ('Groom') of the Church ('Bride')
- together they form a union, called hierogamy
- church = 'Mystical Body of Christ on Earth'
- a union bound through sacraments in which Catholics participate
- prayers of faithful help eath other in 'mystical body' whether alive or departed
- "Council of Trent: Purgatory"
- Veneration of Icons
John Calvin - French Protestant Theologian
- Martin Luther provided much of Protestant Ecclesiology ("Church Structure")
- John Calvin provided much of Protestant Christology
- Especially for many U.S. protestants, like the Puritans Presbyterians
Jesus in Calvinism (Kings, Priests, Prophets)
- the Christ mediates All creation himself, not just the bridge over sin
- the Christ "subordinates" himself
- Christ ('word/logos') fulfills Torah through the ancient Hebrew authorities
- Christ would still have been necessary even without human sin
Christ as High Priest
- performs a blood sacrifice on behalf of humanity's sin (sacrificial function is link to Catholicism)
- appeases God's wrath, removes humanity's fear
- restores proper religio between God and World
Christ as High King
- fulfills the social contract of the ancient Hebrew kings
- bestows the blessings of God on the church
- protects the church from its enemies
Christ as High Prophet
- teaches the principles of a pious life
- the 'Ambassador' who makes God's ways plain
- creates faith in his offices as King and Priest
The Mormon Christ
- God the father and Jesus appeared to Joseph Smith in NY
- Jesus Christ had a ministry in the Americas after his biblical ministry
- 'John the Baptizer' and other angelic disciples (Peter, James, John) restored ancient Priesthoods to Smith in 1829
- for Mormons this is a Restoration, not a "Reformation"
The Mormon Christ
- Jesus is not only a mediator, but model for living
- the divine qualities inherent in the Christ are found fully developed in the father and found in primitive form in mortal humans
- humans can potentially become 'gods' partaking of the Divine Nature
- "Theosis" = Eastern Orthodox
- "Exaltation" = Mormons
Christ in Latter Day Saints (LDS) "Mormons"
- Humans are the lateral spirit - children of God the Father (and a Heavenly Mother)
- Jesus was the firstborn and holds royal birthright. Spiritually progressed until Godhood.
- Jesus created Earth/Creation, and was Yahweh (Jehovah) of the Old Testament
- One unified Human/Divine (non-Chalcedonian), fulfilling the ancient Hebrew offices as well (as in John Calvin's theory)
- each member of the Trinity is a separate Person, but united by will and purpose--they each bear record for each other
Material Artifact: Christus statue in Temple Square, Salt Lake City
- stands in a rotunda before a mural of the universe to show the Mormon belief that that "by him, and through him, and of him, the worlds are and were created."
- outside a Mormon temple, which you can not enter without permission
Main two rituals central to Christianity:
- 1. Baptism
- 2. Eucharist/Lords Supper
- Hellenistic Judaism required water immersion only for adult male converts. Christians made it central.
- ritual in which one is "admitted into the community"
- symbolic death and resurrection in re-enactment
- in religions, immersion often signigies death of old & birth of new
- as a minority religion, baptism entailed personal/political sacrifice for the ancients
- different meaning for Catholics, Protestants, and others
- re-enactment of Jesus' last meal with disciples in the synoptic gospels
- breaks bread and passes around wine, declaring them to be his blood and body
- given to his disciples, enjoins them to do this in remembrance of him
- called the eucharist (Greek for Thanksgiving)
- Catholics have seven sacraments, Protestants have two
Material Artifact: Mexican Monstrance
- used to hold the Eucharistic host (a.k.a.) the Blessed Sacrament during times of adoration by devotees
- A monstrance is used in Catholic and some Anglican (Church of England) churches to display the Blessed Sacrament.
- The Sacrament is affixed within the small glass case in the middle, called a 'pyx.'
Gospel of Mark
- tanakh passage at beginning
- 'Baptizer' calls for repentance, change
- echoes character of Hebrew prophet
- Jesus baptized in river, approval by father
- promotes own authority (at first)
- prescribes use of Moses's 'holiness code'
Icon: Romanian Orthodox Eucharist
picture of Jesus
- an outward expression of inward grace
- mark members of the mystical body of Christ on Earth: "The Church"
- 1. Baptism
- 2. Confirmation
- 3. Eucharist
- 4. Reconciliation
- 5. Orders
- 6. Matrimony
- 7. Extreme Unction
Humans in perfect communion with God
Worship vs. Veneration
- Worship = "Service"
- Veneration = "honor and reverence"
- asking for prayer on behalf
The protestant sermon
- sola scriptura - scripture alone
- Sermon-learned exposition on meaning of Scripture
- hearing the Word and Call is very important
- Evangelicals only
- after sermon, coming forth for hierogamic conversion of the heart
Five major Mormon Ordinances for exaltation:
- 1. Baptism
- 2. Gift of Holy Spirit
- 3. Priesthood Ordainment
- 4. Temple Endowment
- 5. Sealed Marriage
- Baptism for the dead (vicarious baptism)