Card Set Information
Who wrote the New Testament Gospels?
Who was John the Baptist?
An apocalyptic prophet, who baptized Jesus and was executed by the ruler of Galilee.
Jesus was a disciple of John
Who were the Nazarenes?
The original core group from which Christianity grew and spread.
Initially they still considered themselves to be Jews, but were the first group of people to believe that Jesus was the Messiah.
Gospel of Mark.
John the Baptist
Adult ministry, Jewish practice
Greek and Jewish markers
Re-appearance (some versions)
Gospel of Luke.
John the Baptist
Book of Acts
Gospel of Matthew.
Gospel of John
The "New Adam" (Humanity or "I am of the blood" "Human 2.0") (Ben Adam=son of man in Hebrew)
Who was Paul?
Pharisee, Apostle to the Gentiles (non-Jews)
Said Jesus is a specific descendent of King David (Hebrew) but a universal savior (Greek/Gentile)
Life in the Spirit rather than the flesh
Who was Marcion?
rejected Hebrew Canon, Judaism and its laws
taught that the world was created by an inferior, evil deity
the Tanakh is the record of this inferior God. Jesus was sent from 'higher' to rescue souls
Promoted his own Gospel and Pauline writings as the only true teachings. The villians of the Old Testament are heroes of the new
Name the five locations of the early Christian church.
Material Artifact: The Didache.
"Teaching of the twelve"
Dated to 1st/2nd Century C.E.
Reveals how Jewish-Christians saw themselves
Outlines the offices of congregations (bishop, priest, deacon) the roles of men and women
A manuel of worship for Baptism and the Eucharist (the two most important sacraments)
Recommends Jewish derived prayer, Paternoster ("Our Father") prayer 3x per day
Eucharist (Greek for Thanksgiving) for church members only + special prayer after
Describes the end of the world
Latin for "Our Father"
What does ICTHYUS "Iesous Christos, Theouhouios, Soter" mean?
It means "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior"
Served as the "safe word/phrase" during hidden meetings
ICTHYUS literally means "fish" in Greek, thus the symbol
Council of Nicea (325 C.E.)
established Jesus as son of God
father and son are coeternal, coequal
established doctrine of
of same substance
" as the father
dealt with the Christ's
one substance playing three roles ("personas")
Council of Chalcedon (451 C.E.)
held that Christ is both
as well as
at the same time
two natures united in one essence
some non-Chalcedonian churches still exist
dealt with the Christ's
one person, two natures; fully divine, fully human
: Chalcedon Creed "we teach one Christ-Son in 2 natures without transmuting...dividing...or contrasting"
The Great Schism.
Latin empire struggles in West, Greek (Byzantium) flourishes in East
Culture/language divide grows wider
Theology/Politics was cracking point
Filioque ("and the son") added to
in Latin church without universal council ("Apostles Creed")
Could not agree on the
(Split in 1054)
Son <-- Father --> Holy Spirit
Eastern Orthodoxy (a.k.a. Byzantine Christianity)
made its way to Eastern Europe (Russia)
encouraged use of local languages, strong national/ethnic identities
no councils since the Great Schism
Emphasizes use of
As it moves, it creates a church in each place (ex
: Russian orthodox, Greek orthodox, etc.) called
- each church is in charge of its own church
Full communion - all orthodox churches are welcoming to other orthodox churches (NOT Roman Catholic)
Some Uniate Churches work with both Orthodoxy and Catholocism
The Crusades "Just War" vs. "Jihad"
Pilgrimage + Religious War
East + West 'Christendom' against "Dar-al-Islam"
Rise of Islam led
Four major "Crusades"
encouraged militristic development of Jihad,
slaughtered Christians, major trade routes opened, papel authority strengthened, internal dissent silenced
Ultimately destroyed relations between Eastern and Western churches
Also internal 'crusades' against European 'heretics'
Christians and musims gave as good as they got; Jewish took it from both
Series of reform attempts between 14th-17th centuries
Martin Luther (monk) and Henry VIII (King of England)
List the four basis of Protestantism (Religion of the World).
1. Sola Scriptura - the bible/scripture alone
2. Sola Fide - faith alone
3. Priesthood of all Believers - every believer is own priest
4. Moral action in the world - led by faith
Henry VIII (King of England)
declared himself head of church so he could divorce his wife
: Anglicans/Episcopalians/Church of England
Material Artifact: King James Bible
The 'English Reformation'
Bible of choice for Protestant Christians and Mormons
Renowned for its poetic majesty, but often criticized nowadays for its translations of Hebrew and Greek
Angelicans, Presbyterians, Lutherans
longer histories (back in Europe)
deeper roots (16th-17th century)
work for common social justice
sin is more a
rather than individual
Baptists, Methodists, Pentecostals
arose during 18th century in Britain and colonies (Pent. in 20th)
emphasize "Personal Experience of God"
see sin as more
free justification through faith
doctrine of the gospel, administration of the sacraments
saints (holy women/men) are
return of clerical marriages (condemned since 12th century)
the Christ purchased salvation for the elect (people destined for salvation)
preaching requires no institutional sanction or support
all churches can choose/expel their own officials without external authority
sacraments for professing believers only
Who is Joseph Smith?
Started Mormon religion
Angel Moroni told him to find records of Christ in America buried in ground
: hieroglyphics, seer stones
articles of ancient Hebrew priesthood
The Mormon Restoration
Started by Joseph Smith
Started in NY (area of revivalism)
Book of Mormon (1830)
12-14 million worldwide (most outside of US)
"The Restoration": The Book of Mormon
Established Hebrew origins of Native Americans (from remnants of Assyrian/Babylonian invasion)
Gave the USA a biblical past
Sees God acting in history through Amerindians
God continues to 'speak' through prophets
Restoration of the "Primitive Church"
The United States was destined to be a 'New Jerusalem'
Catholicism: Vatican II (1962-1965)
"Throwing open the windoes of the church"
use of the vernacular languages instead of Latin
priest now faces the congregation
more audience participation
local flavor, relaxed dress
revive the role of scripture as authority
regret for split with Orthodox church
: "Nuns in jeans playing guitar"
Orthodox Christianity: End of Communism
most significant recent event for orthodox churches
ended official control of state churches
churches were the only institutions left
revived ethnic tensions and anti-semitism
Bosnian war and the Serbian orthodox church (Serbian government "cleaned out religions in Bosnia" (1992-95)
Jesus in Roman Catholicism
sin is an
infinite chasm separating
God and Humans..therefore..
Christ can embody and represent "humanity" (Ben Adam)
but only a divine Christ can bridge the gap of sin (logos)
Christ must be both divine and human at the same time
Son of Man
Jesus in Catholicism
Christ is the Head ('Groom') of the Church ('Bride')
together they form a union, called hierogamy
church = 'Mystical Body of Christ on Earth'
a union bound through sacraments in which Catholics participate
prayers of faithful help eath other in 'mystical body' whether alive or departed
"Council of Trent
Veneration of Icons
John Calvin - French Protestant Theologian
Martin Luther provided much of Protestant
John Calvin provided much of Protestant Christology
Especially for many U.S. protestants, like the Puritans Presbyterians
Jesus in Calvinism (Kings, Priests, Prophets)
the Christ mediates
creation himself, not just the bridge over sin
the Christ "subordinates" himself
Christ ('word/logos') fulfills Torah through the ancient Hebrew authorities
Christ would still have been necessary even without human sin
Christ as High Priest
performs a blood
on behalf of humanity's sin (sacrificial function is link to Catholicism)
appeases God's wrath, removes humanity's fear
between God and World
Christ as High King
fulfills the social contract of the ancient Hebrew kings
bestows the blessings of God on the church
protects the church from its enemies
Christ as High Prophet
teaches the principles of a pious life
' who makes God's ways plain
creates faith in his offices as King and Priest
The Mormon Christ
God the father and Jesus appeared to Joseph Smith in NY
Jesus Christ had a ministry in the Americas after his biblical ministry
'John the Baptizer' and other angelic disciples (Peter, James, John) restored ancient Priesthoods to Smith in 1829
for Mormons this is a
, not a "Reformation"
The Mormon Christ
Jesus is not
a mediator, but
the divine qualities inherent in the Christ are found
in the father and found in
form in mortal humans
humans can potentially become 'gods' partaking of the Divine Nature
"Theosis" = Eastern Orthodox
"Exaltation" = Mormons
Christ in Latter Day Saints (LDS) "Mormons"
Humans are the lateral spirit - children of God the Father (and a Heavenly Mother)
Jesus was the firstborn and holds royal birthright. Spiritually progressed until Godhood.
Jesus created Earth/Creation, and was Yahweh (Jehovah) of the Old Testament
One unified Human/Divine (non-Chalcedonian), fulfilling the ancient Hebrew offices as well (as in John Calvin's theory)
each member of the Trinity is a
by will and purpose--they each bear
for each other
Material Artifact: Christus statue in Temple Square, Salt Lake City
stands in a rotunda before a mural of the universe to show the Mormon belief that that "by him, and through him, and of him, the worlds are and were created."
outside a Mormon temple, which you can not enter without permission
Main two rituals central to Christianity:
2. Eucharist/Lords Supper
Hellenistic Judaism required water immersion only for adult male converts. Christians made it central.
ritual in which one is "admitted into the community"
symbolic death and resurrection in re-enactment
in religions, immersion often signigies death of old & birth of new
as a minority religion, baptism entailed personal/political sacrifice for the ancients
different meaning for Catholics, Protestants, and others
re-enactment of Jesus' last meal with disciples in the synoptic gospels
breaks bread and passes around wine, declaring them to be his blood and body
given to his disciples, enjoins them to do this in remembrance of him
(Greek for Thanksgiving)
Catholics have seven sacraments, Protestants have two
Material Artifact: Mexican Monstrance
used to hold the Eucharistic host (a.k.a.) the Blessed Sacrament during times of adoration by devotees
A monstrance is used in Catholic and some Anglican (Church of England) churches to display the Blessed Sacrament.
The Sacrament is affixed within the small glass case in the middle, called a 'pyx.'
Gospel of Mark
tanakh passage at beginning
'Baptizer' calls for repentance, change
echoes character of Hebrew prophet
Jesus baptized in river, approval by father
promotes own authority (at first)
prescribes use of Moses's 'holiness code'
Icon: Romanian Orthodox Eucharist
picture of Jesus
an outward expression of inward grace
mark members of the mystical body of Christ on Earth
: "The Church"
7. Extreme Unction
Humans in perfect communion with God
Worship vs. Veneration
Worship = "Service"
Veneration = "honor and reverence"
asking for prayer on behalf
The protestant sermon
sola scriptura - scripture alone
-learned exposition on meaning of Scripture
hearing the Word and Call is very important
after sermon, coming forth for hierogamic conversion of the heart
Five major Mormon Ordinances for
2. Gift of Holy Spirit
3. Priesthood Ordainment
4. Temple Endowment
5. Sealed Marriage
Baptism for the dead (vicarious baptism)