Bio 106 Exam 3

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Bio 106 Exam 3
2012-12-12 00:21:52
Bio106 Matos csun Exam3 examIII Biology 106

Biology 106 Exam 3 Review
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  1. What do the fuels wood and coals have in common?
    They are formed from living or fossil plants
  2. Bioprospectors and ethnobotanists search for plants and plant products used for medicine by native cultures. The major function of the medicinal compounds in plants is to 
    Defend the plants against herbivores 
  3. Molecular phylogenies show all land plants are a monophyletic group. This suggests that. 
    there was a single transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats 
  4. Which of these is a major trend in land plant evolution? 
    the trend toward a sporophyte dominated life cycle 
  5. To colonize, land plants had to overcome a number of difficulties. However, once this occured they were able to exploit more abundant resources. Which of the following reasources were more plentiful on land than in water during early evolution of land plants ? 
  6. The retaining of the zygote on the living gametophyte of land plants 
    allows it to be nourished by the parent plant 
  7. Liverworts, hornworts and mosses are grouped together as the bryophytes. Besides not having vascular tissue, what do they all have in common ?
    They require water for reproduction.
  8. Spores and seeds have basically the same function-dispersal-but are vastly different because 
    Spores are unicellular; seeds are not 
  9. Which of the following is true of stomata ?
    Stomata open to allow gas exchange and close to decrease water loss 
  10. Which of these processes does not result in the formation of a different generation in a plant's sexual life cycle ?
  11. Conifers and pines both have needlelike leaves. Why might their leaves be of this type ? 
    to decrease surface area for water loss 
  12. The most direct ancestors of land plants were probably 
    Certain groups of algae 
  13. Which set contains the most closely related terms 
    Megasporangium, megaspore, egg, ovule 
  14. What two major novelties allowed for the first colonization of terrestrial habitats by plants?
    Cuticle and pores 
  15. What is true about the genus Sphagnum ?
    It grows in extensive masts in grassland areas 
  16. Which of these are structures in a gametophyte generation?
    egg, sperm, zygote, embryo, seedling
  17. The closest relative of the familiar pine and spruce trees are 
    gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes 
  18. Immature seed cones of confers are usually green before pollination, and flowers of grasses are inconspicuously colored. What does this indicate about their pollination?
    They are wind pollinated 
  19. Where are you least likely to see grean algae ? 
    Growing independently on dry rock in meadows 
  20. Which of these processes does not result in the formation of a different generation in a plant's sexual life cycle? 
  21. Most coal was formed during the Carboniferous Period. What is a reasonable hypothesis that explains this observation? 
    There were not many saprophytic fungi during this period
  22. There was a mass extinction of plants and animals at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago. Which of the following would be a reasonable prediction for the fungal fossil record?  
    There should be a massive increase in saprophytic fossils during the extinction, and then a massive decline shortly after the extinction was complete 
  23. Fungi have an extremely high surface area to volume ratio. what is the advantage of this to an organism that gets most of its nutrition through absorption ?
    The larger surface area allows for more material to be transported through the cell membrane 
  24. Why is it more difficult to treat fungi infections than bacterial infections in humans? 
    Fungal and animal cells and proteins are similar. thus drugs that disrupt fungal cell or protein function may also disrupt human cell or protein function 
  25. It has been hypothesized that fungi and plants have a mutualistic relationship because fungi provide critical nitrogen for the plants' use. How do we know this happens ? 
    Plants acquire more radioactive nitogen when they are associated with fungi 
  26. You observed the gametes of a fungal species under the microscope and realize that they resemble animal sperm. to which of the following group does the fungus belong ?
  27. Which of these fungal features supports the phylogenetic conclusion that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants ? 
    The cell walls of fungi are made of chitin 
  28. Long, branching fungal filaments are called
  29. A cell has two haploid nuclei. this means it is 
  30. Basidiomycetes are the only fungal group capable of synthesizing lignin peroxidase. What advantage does this group of fungi have over other fungi because of this capability ?
    This fungal group can break down the tough lignin, which cannot be harnessed for enegy, to get more useful cellulose. 
  31. This group of fungi has the ability to penetrate its host cell wall, thus increasing the efficiency with which materials are passed from fungus to host. 
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi 
  32. Some fungal species can kill herbivores while feeding off of sugars from its plant host. What type of relationship does this fungus have with its host ? 
  33. Microsporidians are considered parasitic because of the ability to penetrate their host cells using this structure 
    polar tube 
  34. Many amphibian populations have been decimated by a parasitic fungi belonging to which lineage ? 
  35. Based on the idea that fungi have pores between their cell walls, which allow cytoplasm to move from one end of the mycelium to the other, which of the following hypothesis is the most plausible ?
    If a single mycorrhizal fungus formed symbiotic associations with more than one tree, carbon could travel from one plant to another 
  36. The evolution of aimal species has been prolific (the estimates go into the millions and tens of millions ) to what does the text attribute much of this diversity ?
    a large variety of methods for capturing and processing food 
  37. An organism that exhibits cephalization probably also 
    is bilaterally symmetrical 
  38. in examining an unknown animal species during its embryonic development, how can you be sure what you are looking at is a protostome and not a deurostome 
    You see a mouth, but not an anus 
  39. which of the following is a feature of the tube within a tube body plan in most animals ?
    the mouth and anus form the ends of the inner tube 
  40. the digestive system of most animals is lined with cells through which nutrients are absorbed. what is the embryonic origin of these cells  
  41. why might researchers choose to use molecular data (such as ribosomal RNA sequences) rather than morphological data to study the evolutionary history of animals?
    morphological changes usually dont result from molecular changes 
  42. the eye of most vertebrates has a flexible lens which changes shape, by the action of the ciliary muscle, depending on the distance between the lens and the object on which the animal is focusing which mollusks eye is most similar to the vertebrate eye? 
  43. Which of the following is most likely to be aquatic ?
    suspension feeders 
  44. Which of the following would most strongly support your hypothesis than an animal you are observing is an ectoparasite ?
    a scolex 
  45. A radula is a specialized feeding organ, used to scrape material off of food for ingestion, much like a chese grater scrapes sheds of a block of cheese. Snails, which have this structure, are thus which kind of feeder ? 
    Mass feeders 
  46. Due to its unsual habitat (inside the digestive tract of other animals), the tapeworm lacks 
    a digestive tract 
  47. Most fish deposit fertilized eggs, but some sharks keep the fertilized egg inside the female until she gives birth to a relatively well developed pup. these sharks would thus be characterized as 
  48. following the fusion of gametes in Obelia, the resulting cell divides via mitosis to become a 
  49. all of the following are true about choanoflagellates except 
    they are animals 
  50. which of the following groups of terms best describes the acoelomorpha ?
    triploblastic; bilaterally symmetric; simple digestive tracts; mobile