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Latane and Darley found what regarding bystander
The more people present at an emergency, the less chance any one person will help.
two principles that contribute to lack of bystander intervention
Diffusion of Responsibility: as number of people increases, each person's feeling of personal obligation decreases.
Pluralistic Ignorance: in uncertain situations, people look to actions of others. People mistakenly believe their own thoughts and feelings are different from those of others because everyone's behavior is the same.
Model of Bystander Intervention 5 barriers to pass
- Step 1: Notice that something is happening (Get Distracted)
- Step 2 : Interpret event as an emergency (Pluralistic Ignorance)
- Step 3 : Take responsibility for providing help (Diffusion of Resp.)
- Step 4 : Decide how to help (Lack of Competance)
- Step 5 : Provide help (Feeling foolish)
Define Prosocial Behavior
Any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person
The desire to help another person even if it involves a cost to the helper
How does evolutionary theory explain altruistic
behavior? What about Social reasons?
- 1. The idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection
- 2. Adaptive for individuals to learn social norms from other members of a society. Best learners survive
3. Social Exchange Theory- Increase likelihood of future help, Someone will help us when we need it, Relief of bystander distress, Social approval
How does the empathy-altruism hypothesis explain prosocial behavior?
– The idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
Gender Norms and Altruism
Men expected to be heroic, chivalrous,assertive, confident. Storming a bunker!
Women expected to be warm, nurturing,compassionate. Helping a desperate cancer patient!
Factors that influence helping: Rural or Urban areas?
• Small towns: – Half the people who walked by stopped and offered to help the man.
• Large cities: – Only 15% of passersby stopped to help.
Urban Overload Hypothesis: People living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it.
Tendency to help by Age of Target
- Every Day
- Early and end stages of life= More likely to help with everyday activities. Huge dip around 18 years old
- Life or Death
- More likely to help 18 year olds, unlikely to help old people.
What are the different classifications of aggressive
behavior? How are they different? What is one example of each?
: Aggression as a means to an end. “Cold.” Ex. Wrestling
: Aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain. “Hot.” REVENGE!
- Direct vs IndirectInsult Gossip
How do Freud, Lorenz explain aggressive behavior? Evolutionary Psychology?
Freud: We have a death instinct.– An unconscious impulse toward self-destruction.
Konrad Lorenz (ethology): Aggression is an innate, instinctual motivation.– Aggression secures an advantage in the struggle to survive.
Evolutionary Psychology: Fighting others secures one’s own survival.
Biological Factors of Aggression: Testosterone and Serotonin
- Testosterone – Strong, positive correlation between testosterone levels and aggression.-It’s causal, too! Testosterone injections -> Aggression-
- Men and women differ in testosterone levels
- Serotonin – Neurotransmitter; Neurotransmitter; appears to appears to restrain restrainimpulsive acts of aggression.
- – Low levels of serotonin are associated with high levels of aggression.
- – Drugs that increase serotonin levels can reduce aggressiveness as well as other impulsive and socially deviant behaviors
Biological Factors of Aggression: Alcohol
- Alcohol increases aggression. – This link is well-documented.
- • Why?
- 1.Reduces inhibitions
- 2.Disrupts information processing
- 3."Think drink" effect
- • Expectations about the effects of alcohol influence behavior more than amount of alcohol drunk!
Situational Factors of Aggression: Irritating Environment, Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
- Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: 1. Frustration will always elicit the drive to attack others
- 2. every act of aggression can be traced back to frustration
- 3.engaging in aggression causes catharsis, which reduces aggression.
in reality frustration does not always
= aggression, and aggression creates more aggression, not catharsis.
The tendency of weapons to increase the likelihood of aggression by their mere presence.
Social Learning Theory of Aggression
Social behavior (e.g., aggression) learned by observing others and imitating them.
Bandura's Bobo Doll
Repeated exposure to media violence is associated with what 3 Numbing Effects:
- – Decreased sensitivity to violence
- • Less Less physiological arousal physiological arousal
- – Less reactivity to real-life aggression
- • Indifference to violence
- – Reduced sensitivity to needs of others
How do social psychologists define stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination?
Stereotypes – schemas about the qualities associated with particular social groups
Prejudice – hostile or negative emotional reaction to members of a particular social group
Discrimination – negative, inequitable, harmful behavior toward members of a social group
Social cognitive explanations of Stereotypes
- 1. Social Cognitive
- Stereotypes arise inevitably from the manner in which we process and organize information
- We automatically make in-group (us) vs. outgroup (them) judgments which creates Prejudice
- 2. Economic explanations: competition for limited resources creates conflict between groups and leads to stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination
Treating unknown others with distrust led to survival.
4. Terror Management Theory:
collection of beliefs,values, and social institutions that are shared by members of one’s in-group. Promises literal or symbolic immortality. "Your group lives on."
Effects of Stereotypes on Targets
Apprehension felt by members of negatively stereotyped groups when their behavior might confirm the stereotype.
- → feel anxiety and self-doubt
- → show reductions in working memory capacity
- → underperform, relative to non-stereotyped others
Allport's Contact Theory- 6 Conditions
- To overcome prejudice, there must be contact between groups. The contact should:
- (1) groups are equal status
- (2) mutual interdependence
- (3) common (superordinate) goal
- (4) informal interpersonal contact
- (5) multiple contacts
- (6) supported by norms favoring equality
What is a Jigsaw classroom
- Split into groups of 5, each person provides essential information for the other 4 to succeed. It's an educational technique that:
- •reduces prejudice and negative stereotyping
- •improves grades
- •increases self-confidence
- •increases liking for school
- •decreases absenteeism
Source (Internal vs. External) of Motivation
- Internal Motivation: personally held nonprejudiced beliefs
- External Motivation: Normative pressure to be prejudiced
Who has the highest and lowest actual race bias?
- Highest: Low Internal, Low External motivation
- Lowest: High internal, low External motivation
What is the Kernel of truth hypothesis
Kernel of truth hypothesis – there is at least some truth to many stereotypes
Self fulfilling prophecies: What is beautiful is good- That person is treated special and interracted with more, so they develop more social skills, make more connections, etc.
- • People do not openly discriminate as frequently as they did in the past.
- •Prejudiced beliefs and discrimination are more subtle.
- • Self-report measures are not as reliable unless it’s a widely disliked groups
- Measure by:
- Bogus Pipeline
- Implicit Attitudes Test
- Video Games
Injunctive Norms and Descriptive Norms
– People's perceptions of what behaviors are approved
- Descriptive Norms– People's perceptions of how people actually behave.
- Clean up all the litter in an environment.– “No one litters here.”
Methods of Reducing Consumption
Making conservation a competition
- Making conservation a game
What two factors work against our control over our own happiness?
- • Happiness is partly genetic.
- – Some people born with a happier temperament
- • Circumstances outside of our control
- – Huge political upheavals in a country
How to Achieve Happiness
- Satisfying Relationships
- – Spend more time with other people
- – Are more satisfied with their relationships
- Flow- Being engaged in something you love
- – Working at something they enjoy
- – Are making progress
- • Flow occurs when people are "lost" in a task that is challenging but attainable
- – Reaching a goal may be gratifying
- • But then no longer in a state of flow so keep achieving!
- Helping Others:– Connects people to others and enhancing social relationships• Important source of happiness
- – View self in a more positive light
What is the relationship between money, material accumulation, and well-being?
Happiness+ Until basic needs are met, then Happiness=
What is affective forecasting?
- Affective forecasting (People suck at this)
- – The extent to which people can predict the intensity and duration of their emotional reactions to future emotional reactions to future events
The Problem of Isolation. Why are Americans becoming more isolated?
- 1985, about 75% of the people surveyed said that they had a close friend with whom they could talk about their problems.
- – 2004, only 50% said they had such a friend
- .• Why?– Less church, attendance of public meetings, entertaining friends at home…
What is Stress?
The negative feelings and beliefs that arise whenever people feel unable to cope with demands from their environment
body’s physiological response to threatening events
readjust their lives in response to an external event