In __________ therapy, an attempt is made to improve physiologic support for adequately planned and programmed speech.
In _______ therapy, treatment focuses on reestablighing plans or programs or improving the ability to select or activate them or set the parameters for speech movements in a given context that will then be executed by an intact neuromuscular apparatus
Aphasia is present in a high proportion of those with _____ because of the overlap of lesion sites that are associated with the two disorders.
What 3 ways does aphasia influence aos treatment?
1- it affects language functions in all modalities
2- aphasia affects verbal expression
3- aphasia may be so severe that verbal communication would not be functional even if motor speech ability was intact.
Treatment for aos should focus on task that provide the greatest __ benefit most rapidly or that provide the best foundation for improvement over the course of tx.
Managing aos is primarily a __________ enterprise.
There are ______ medical interventions specifically designed to improve aos for which there is strong evidence for efficacy.
Mechanical and prosthetic devices is appropriate for some people with aos but is almost always _________ and primarily intended to stimulate improved speech without the prosthesis.
AOS is predominantly a disorder of ___ and _____.
articulation and prosody
Tx is rarely focused on _________, ___________, or _________ for any patient with aos besides the most severely impaired patients.
resonance, respiration, phonation
______________ speech is easier than volitional purposive speech.
________ distinctions are easier than voicing distinction, which are easeier than manner distinctions, which are easier than place distinctions.
_______ and _________ places of articulation are easier than other places of articulation.
bilabial and lingual/alveolar
Consonant singletons are easier than _____.
__________ frequency words are easier than _______ frequency words, and meaninggul words are easier than nonsense words.
_______ syllable words are easier than multisyllabic words, and words are easier than phrases or sentences.
Combined ________ and _________ stimulation lead to more accurate responses than auditory or visual stimulation alone.
visual and auditory
production of ______ words are easier than productions of unstressed words.
Working on _____ stimulable targets may promote better generalization even if initial acquisition is more difficult.
Tx for aos does not require efforts to increase ________ support for speech.
Using speech stimuli as targets usually is more appropriate than _______ stimuli.
when aos is so severe that sounds or sound segments cannot be produced, work on nonspeech _____ or movement sequences may be appopriate because tx should begin at a level at which some succes can occur.
Nonspeech oromotor practice should always involve movement targets or patterns that closely approximate speech _________.
Every specific behavioral tx approach for aos emphasizes _______.
patients should be urged to _______ their speech, search for correct targets, and self-correct errors
________ and ___________ are motivating and more meaningful and specific to the ultimate goal of tx.
words and phrases
Consistent and variable practice should be used with aos and _________ practice should be used as soon as progress can be demonstrated in response to it.
5 types of behavioral management approaches?
1- the 8 step continuum for txing aos
2- sound production tx
3- prompts for restructuring oral muscular phonetic targets (prompt)
4- melodic intonation therapy
_________ regimens may help to reduce dysfluencies for neurogenic stuttering.
behavioral tx of ns should be deferred until after and related ________
neurogenic dysfluencies may be modified by _________ strategies that are effective for modifying rate in people with dysarthria or aos.
Little is known about tx of palilalia but patients with palilalaia and pd may improve with _____ management
Management of aphasia and aos and dysarthria are quite different and the tx of one disorder cannot be expected to ________ deficits in the others.
________ for patients with aprosodia may help patients and their families
Patients with psychogenic speech disorders dcan be managed effectively by slp and their prognosis for recovery is usually _______.
For psychogenic speech disorders the clinician attitude and manner of relating to the patient is ____--
Therapy for psychogenic speech disorder is best conducted following ________ of all relevant medical evaluations
The _______ history is crucial to both diagnosis and management.
_______ tx usually involves the identification of abnormal behaviors and the gradual behavioral shaping of more normal speech responses with continuous explanantion and reinforcement for change.
Syptomatic therapy involved efforts to reduce excessive musculoskeletal tension and the gradual shaping of normal _______ and ________. A high portion of patients respond well to symptomatic therapy.