Card Set Information
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Water parameters, TDS, Legal Land Descriptions
What are the 4 categories of impurities in water?
1. TDS (Total dissolved solids)
2. TSS (Total suspended solids)
3. O&G (Oil and Grease)
4. DO (Dissolved Organics)
Define potable water
Water that is suitable for drinking
A subsurface zone of trapped water
Name some sources of water
: ocean, rivers, lakes
Land surface water
: snow, ice caps, rainfall
: wells, aquifers, water table
What 4 questions should you ask when considering water treatment?
1. Where does the water come from?
2. What type of water do we have?
3. What do we need the water for?
4. What are the treatment options?
What separates TDS from TSS?
TDS has a particle size <0.45um, while TSS is greater
TSS is organic and inorganic; TDS is just inorganic
Parameters used to define water quality
Temperature, turbidity, dissolved O
, pH, colour, alkalinity, hardness
What are some problems associated with high TDS?
-Can be toxic
How can you measure TDS?
-Evaporating the water and weighing the solids left behind
-Complete ion analysis
What parameters are necessary to predict scaling tendency?
Hardness and alkalinity
The mols of acid required to titrate a water sample to a pH of 4.3
Define retrograde solubility
Solubility goes down as temperature goes up
What's an example of a retrograde soluble compound?
What is temporary hardness?
The sum of the polyvalent cations in water
How is hardness determined?
Through an EDTA titration
What is total hardness?
Temporary + permanent hardness
What is permanent hardness?
Non-bicarbonate hardness (CaCl
Why is scale a problem?
-Can form an impermeable barrier
-Can increase corrosion (under deposit corrosion)
-Acts as an insulator
How can you use LSI to determine if a water will scale?
if LSI = 0, system is at equlibrium (saturated)
if LSI > 0, supersaturated; scale will form
if LSI <0, undersaturated; scale will not form
What are 4 ways to prevent scale?
1. Manage scale
2. Use chemicals to prevent scale formation
3. Remove ions before they can precipitate as scale
4.Remove water and leave solids behind
What is softening?
Removing the hardness from water
What are some parameters used to control the softening process?
1. Adjust the pH
2. Adjust ions (hardness and alkalinity)
3. Adjust temperature
Dominion Land Survey
Alberta Township System
National Topographic System