RA II Exam 2

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studytaz
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189056
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RA II Exam 2
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2012-12-12 16:00:15
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Mouth Eye
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RA II Exam 2 Mouth & Eye
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  1. Physiognomy of the Eye
    Photographs of the closed eye are rare.

    In life the eyes are the main feature of expression.

    (In death the mouth is considered to be most expressive.)

    In death the closed eye contributes only a small amount to facial expression

    The upper rim of the eye socket has a greater projection that the lower rim.
  2. MUSCLES
    The two most important muscles to considerer when doing eye restorations

    Orbicularis oculi (muscle of reflection or thought)

    Levator Palpebrae Superioris (elevator of the upper eyelid)
  3. CORNEA
    This is the transparent structure forming the anterior portion of the eyeball.

    The cornea has the greatest influence on the projection of the upper eyelid
  4. CANTHUS OF THE EYE (CORNER)
    The inner canthus (medial) is an eminence or elevation that extends medially from the upper eyelid. 

    The outer canthus (lateral) is positioned inferior and posterior to the inner canthus.
  5. VERTICAL MEASUREMENT
    The upper eyelid is approximately 3 times larger than the lower eye lid.

    The point of greatest vertical measurement is located medially off-center.
  6. HORIZONTAL MEASUREMENT
    The upper eyelid is slightly wider than the lower eye lid (due to the medial canthus).

    When posed (and closed) the eye lids should resemble an almond shape.
  7. LINE OF CLOSURE
    The line of eye closure is located in the lower 1/3 of the orbital cavity.

    It is created mainly by the lower margin of the upper eye lid as it contacts the lower eyelid.

    It shape is described as a gently dipping curve moving from the inner canthus (superior) to the outer canthus (inferior).
  8. PROFILE VIEW OF THE EYE
    The distance from the outer canthus to the point of greatest projection of the closed eyelid, is equal to the distance from the point of greatest projection of the eyelid to the bridge of the nose.
  9. CILIA
    eyelashes
  10. SUPERCILIUM
    eyebrows
  11. SUPRAORBITAL AREA
    Described as a convex surface between the upper rim of the eye socket (or eyebrow) and the upper eyelid. Although the surface is described as convex its curvature recedes as it moves from eyebrow to upper eyelid.
  12. NASO-ORBITAL FOSSA
    The concave area above the medial end of the upper eyelid and lying near the root of the nose.
  13. SUPERIOR PALPEBRA & INFERIOR PALPEBRA:
    The eyelids, both are convex in shape.  (Said to recede convexly downward.)
  14. THE LINE OF CLOSURE
    The slit where the eyelids meet.  The two eye lids are said to abut.  The line resembles a gently dipping curve.  The lateral end being both inferior and posterior to the medial end.
  15. SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR PALPEBRAL SULCUS
    The acquired furrows of the attached margins of the upper and lower eyelids.
  16. INNER CANTHUS
    The small eminence at the medial end of each upper eyelid.
  17. OBLIQUE PALPEBRAL SULCUS
    The shallow curving grove which originates below the medial canthus (a natural facial marking).
  18. OPTIC FACIAL SULCI (CROWS FEET)
    Acquired furrows radiating laterally from the outer corner of the eye, into the side of the face.
  19. ORBITAL POUCH
    The acquired puffy surface between the lower lid and the extended oblique palpebral sulcus.
  20. INTERCILIARY SULCI
    Vertical or horizontal acquired furrows between the eyebrows and lying on the glabella or across the root of the nose.
  21. COMMON TRANSVERSE SULCUS
    A palpebration (or winking) furrow that develops slightly above the eyelashes on the upper eye lid.
  22. LINEAR SULCI
    Short palpebration furrows that fan from opposite corners of the eyelids toward each other.
  23. How is the cornea described?
    is the transparent structure forming the anterior portion of the eyeball
  24. Where is the line of eye closure located?
    located in the lower 1/3 of the orbital cavity
  25. Is the upper eye lid wider than the lower?
    yes
  26. How is the line of eye closure described?
    a gently dipping curve moving from the inner canthus (superior) to the outer canthus (inferior)
  27. What is the most important feature in life?
    eyes
  28. What is the most important feature in death?
    mouth
  29. How is the shape of the closed eye described?
    almond shape
  30. Which corner of the eye is superior (medial or lateral)?
    medial
  31. What are to two most important muscles in eye restoration?
    Orbicularis oculi (muscle of reflection or thought)

    Levator Palpebrae Superioris (elevator of the upper eyelid)
  32. What has the most influence on the projection of the upper eyelid?
    CORNEA
  33. What is the most important feature in life?
    eyes
  34. What is the most important feature in death?
    mouth
  35. What feature has more posing and posturing problems?
    mouth
  36. Is the mouth symmetrical or asymmetrical in shape and form?
    asymmetrical
  37. How should the mucous membranes of the lips make contact?
    gently
  38. Physiognomy of the Mouth
    In death, much of the facial expression is concentrated on or about the mouth and lips (in life the eyes are the most expressive feature).

    The mouth probably has more posturing or posing problems than the eyes.  As with all features, the shape of the mouth is bilaterally asymmetrical

    In normal repose, the upper and lower teeth are slightly parted.  The two mucous membranes make gentle contact. 

    The two mucous membranes are not identical in color, the upper is usually “less red” than the lower

    The true color of the lips is best described as a varied complexion coloring with a reddish overtone.

    Increasing the width of the lower mucous membrane and decreasing the width of the upper mucous membrane creates the illusion of a pleasant expression (a very slight smile).
  39. Line of Closure
    Formed by the contact of the free margins of the upper and lower mucous membrane.  Only the upper mucous membrane has the shape of the classic hunting bow.

    (See the last sentence of page 142 for three arcs, vs. five arcs ABFSE)
  40. Vermillion Border
    The junction of the mucous membrane and the integumentary lips. (Not found in the text.)
  41. Mucous Membranes (superior and inferior)
    The visible reddish portion of each lip.
  42. Upper Integumentary Lip
    The skin part of the lip; extending superiorly and laterally from the attached color margin of the mucous membrane.
  43. Lower Integumentary Lip
    The skin part of the lip; receding inferiorly from the attached margin of the lower mucous membrane and to the top and side of the chin
  44. Medial Lobe
    The tiny dipping fullness on the midline of the upper mucous membrane
  45. Philtrum
    The shallow vertical groove on the midline of the upper integumentary lip between the columna nasi and the upper mucous membrane (aka superior labial groove)
  46. Angelus Oris Sulcus
    The small groove at the end of the line of lip closure;  on the medial side of the angelus oris eminence
  47. Angelus Oris Eminence
    The oblique eminence caused by muscles at the end of the line of closure, the AOE begins on the upper integumentary lip, medial to the corners of the mouth
  48. Nasolabial Fold (natural), Nasolabial Sulcus (acquired)
    The prominence of the anterior part of the cheek; running from the superior margin of the nasal wings, down to the side of the mouth; it disappears at the line of closure
  49. Nasal Sulcus
    The small angular area between the wing of the nose and the cheek (or nasolabial fold)
  50. Labiomental Sulcus
    The juncture of the lower integumentary lip and top of the chin (may exhibit a furrow)
  51. Vertical Lines
    The fine linear tracings running vertically on the mucous membranes
  52. Labial Sulci
    The furrows of age, extending vertically o the mucous membranes and integumentary lips
  53. Weather Line
    The line of color difference on each mucous membrane in which the exposed or dry part forms with the internal moist part in normal contact. If the lips are properly closed the weather line will not show.

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