audiology final

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jennyrenee88
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189057
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audiology final
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2012-12-12 17:51:20
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audiology
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audio final
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  1. amount spent annually on OME
    3.5 billion
  2. % of children with acute otitis media by one year of age
    67%
  3. AOM
    acute otitis media
  4. symptoms of AOM
    • crying
    • pulling at ears
    • not eating or sleeping
    • red swollen ears
  5. peak incidence age of OME
    6-11 months
  6. % of children with otitis media who have 3 epidodes by age 3
    50%
  7. rapid onset of signs
    <3 weeks duration
    AOM
  8. otitis media for 3 weeks to 3 months
    subacute OM
  9. otitis media from 3 months or longer
    chronic OM
  10. after ____ OM, we need to screen children at least __ times with approximately ___ to ___ months in between
    chronic, 2, 2, 3
  11. how eustachian tube is opened
    by contraction of palatal muscles
  12. eustachian tubes in children are _____ and more _____ than adults
    shorter, horizontal
  13. functions of the eustachian tube
    • protection from nasopharyngeal sound and secretions
    • clearence of middle ear secretions
    • ventilation (pressure regulation) of middle ear
  14. eustachian tube acts as _____ pressure
    negative
  15. VLBW
    very low birth weight
  16. very low birth weight
    <1500 grams
  17. risk of VLBW decreases by race in this order
    • american indians/eskimos
    • hispanics
    • whites
    • blacks
  18. intrinsic risk factores for chronic OME
    • very low birth weight
    • craniofacial anomalies
    • family history
    • first bout of OME before 6 months old
    • sleep on stomach
    • male
    • immune system weakness
  19. extrinsic (outside of body) risk factors for chronic OME
    • season
    • group day care
    • sharing a pacifier
    • allergens
    • no breast milk
  20. lowest time for OME
    summer
  21. average amount of hearing loss from OME
    25 dB
  22. what you look for in ear drum
    • translucent
    • PE tubes
    • rupture
    • white scare tissue
    • cone of light
  23. it takes _____ for tympanic membrane to heal after PE tube falls out
    48 hours
  24. caused from swimming in cold water a lot
    results in bony growth
    ear canal exotosis
  25. ear discharge
    otorrhea
  26. inflammed mastoid
    mastoiditis
  27. smattering of scar tissue on the TM, but has no impact on hearing
    tympanosclerosis
  28. best practice for hearing screening:
    • middle and outer ear screening done together
    • must be both otherwise may miss up to 50% of children with otitis media
  29. don't feed infant and the ____ position because if makes it easier for food to go to middle ear
    supine
  30. what you do during initial diagnosis of OME
    • educate on parental control of environmental factors
    • no myringotomy
    • observation or antibiotics
  31. do not soley perform _________ anymore because it does not allow for TM to stay open and dry out
    myringotomy
  32. what to do with OME for 3 months with HL of <20dBHL
    • parental control of environment
    • observation or antibiotics
  33. what to do with OME for 3 months with HL of >20dBHL in both ears-chronic
    • parental control of environment
    • antibiotics or bilateral myringotomy with PE tubes
  34. what to do with OME for 4-6 months with HL >20dBHL in both ears
    • parental control of environment
    • bilateral myringotomy with PE tubes
  35. puts positive pressure in and negative pressure out
    sends tone in and measures how much of tone comes back
    tymponogram
  36. static compliance needs to be
    >.3 ml
  37. tympanometric width needs to be
    > 200 daPa
  38. physical volume needs to be
    <2.0
  39. within normal limits
    true peak, betwen positive 200 and negative 200
    Type A tympanogram graph
  40. negative tympanogram
    true peak
    less than -200
    when your ear feels full
    Type C tympanogram graph
  41. flat- no true peak
    concluded that there is fluid behind the ear
    can't be on it's own as an indicator of OME
    Type B tympanograph
  42. OME progresses from __->___->___
    A to C to B
  43. recovery process for OME from __->__->__->
    B to C to A
  44. reasons for medical referral on screening
    • 80% cerumen
    • chrome OME (i.e. flat tymp with normal PV)
    • flat tymp with high PV possible indicator of perforation of TM
  45. school age students spend ___to___% of the school day in listening activities
    45-60%
  46. reasons for APD referals to audiologist
    • difficulty following verbal instructions and answering questions
    • difficulty with reading
  47. % of SLPs who work with school age children regularly with APD
    67%
  48. argue that true perceptual dysfunctions are modality-specific
    Cacase & McFarland
  49. argues that APD often exists with more global dysfunction that may affect performance
    ASHA
  50. APD is not recognized by
    IDEA and DSM
  51. central auditory pathways travel through...
    • brainstem (medulla,pons,midbrain)
    • then to auditory cortex
  52. 65-70% of APD is caused by
    neuromorphologic disorders
  53. underdeveloped, misshapen, and misplaced cells usually in the left hemisphere and the auditory region of the corpus callosum
    neruomorphologic disorders
  54. 25-30% of causes of APD
    delayed maturation of the CANS
  55. <5% of causes for APD
    neurological disorders, diseases and insults
  56. % of school age population with APD
    2-5%
  57. ___to___% with LLD have APD
    30 to 50%
  58. ratio of boys to girls with APD
    2:1
  59. characteristics of school age with APD
    • difficulty with speech understanding in adverse listening environments
    • misunderstanding
    • responding inconsistently or inappropriately
    • frequently asking that information is repeated
    • difficulty attending and avoiding distraction
  60. Bellis' profiles of APD
    • auditory decording deficit
    • prosody weakness deficit
    • integration weakness deficit
  61. primary deficits in monaural serparation/auditory closure and phoneme discrim
    auditory decoding deficit
  62. difficulty with the perception of the intent of a message (sarcasm, humor)
    prosody weakness deficit
  63. inefficient communication between hemispheres
    integration weakness deficit
  64. SUNY-Buffalo Model
    • CAPD
    • decoding
    • tolerance fading
    • integration
    • organization
  65. decoding- SUNY
    difficulty accurately/quickly processing speech
  66. tolerance fading- SUNY
    difficulty understanding adverse listening conditions
  67. integration-SUNY
    difficulty integrating linguistic with suprasegmental
  68. Medwetsky Model
    • spoken language processing
    • intertwining of:
    • auditory processes
    • cognition
    • receptive language
  69. questionaire for grades k-6
    fisher's problem checklist
  70. questionnaire
    -elementary and preschool versions: asks teachers to rate students in behavior, participation, academics, attendance, and communications
    SIFTER
  71. questionnaire that askes teachers and parents to compare a child's auditory functions in different environments
    CHAPPS- auditory processing performance scare
  72. screening for APD with diffierent numbers that go into the ear simultaneously, and child distinguishes
    Dichotic digits test (DDT)
  73. screening for 3-11 years
    administered at MCL
    appox 10-15 min
    subtests- gap detection, auditory figure ground, competing words
    SCAN 3-C
  74. % of children with specific learning disablilty
    43%
  75. distribution of special ed categories
    • 1- specific learning disability
    • 2- speech and language impairment
  76. other ways to classify APD to receive services
    • other health impaired
    • learning disability
    • speech and langue impaired
    • 504 plan
  77. for students ineligible for special ed
    disability is deficed as a mental or phyiscal impairment that substantially limits one of more major life activities (ex:hearing)
    504 plan
  78. doesn't believe APD exists
    Kamhi
  79. 3 approaches to APD management
    • environmental modification
    • direct intervention
    • compensatory strategies
  80. what ASHA says S/N should be
    >15 dB
  81. teacher wears microphone, child wears earpiece
    not much amplification
    for people without SNHL
    PhonakEduLink
  82. using context to fill in missing pieces
    auditory closure
  83. using expectations and experiences to fill in message
    schema induction
  84. learning to key in to tag words and conjenctions
    discourse cohesion devices
  85. using rhythmic and melodic features of the message
    prosody training
  86. national acoustic classroom standard
    • unoccupied ambient noise <35 dB
    • T (Room reverberation) <.6 sec
    • S/N ratio > +15dB

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