AN SC 310 - 14
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What are the properties of arteries?
- Conduct blood away from heart
What are the properties of arterioles
What happens in capillaries
Exchange btwn blood and tissue
What is blood composed of?
- Erythrocytes - O2 and CO2 transportation
- Leukocytes - immune response
- Platelets - blood clotting
- Plasma - fluid/solutes
What is the path of bloodflow in the cardiovascular system? In the systemic/pulmonary circuit?
What supplies blood to the heart for maintenance?
Heart capillaries which are supplied by coronary arteries that arise from aorta
What is the name of the membrance sac surrounding the heart?
What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?
- Endocardium (inner)
- Epicardium (outer)
What are 4 properties of cardiac muscle?
- Cells smaller than skeletal muscle cells
- Cells demonstrate branching
- Striations are evident
- Intercalated disks - gap junctions, desmosomes
How does cardiac muscle grow?
- Cell division during fetal development/infancy
- Hypertrophy after infancy
What are the 2 types of cells in cardiac muscle and what is the proportion of each?
- 99% contratile cells
- 1% autorhythmic cells
What drives blood flow in heart?
What keeps the AV valves from everting?
- Papillary muscles
- Chordae tendinae
What is the conduction system?
Autorhythmic cells that provide pathway to spread excitation through the heart
What are the 2 types of cells in the conduction system?
- Pacemaker cells
- Conduction fibers
What is the role of the conduction fibers and how fast is conduction?
- Conduct APs initiated by pacemaker cells to myocardium
- 4 m/s
What are the 2 nodes in the heart?
- Sinoartrial (pacemaker)
What are the 3 types of conduction fibers in the heart?
- Internodal pathways
- Bundle of His
- Purkinje fibers
Why is there a delay in AV Node transmission?
Allows blood to flow in series from atria to ventricles, if contracted at same time there would be no blood flow.
What is the path of depolarization during heart beats?
- SA Node
- R then L atria
- Atria contract
- AV Node
- Bundle of His
- Bundle branches
- Purkinje fibres
- Ventricles contract
What properties of cardiac contractile cells are similar to skeletal muscle?
- T tubules
- Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+
- Troponin-tropomyosin regulation
What properties of cardiac contractile cells are similar to smooth muscle?
- Gap junctions
- Extracellular Ca2+
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