AN SC 310 - 14

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Author:
ebacker
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189062
Filename:
AN SC 310 - 14
Updated:
2012-12-12 14:39:33
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AN SC 310
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Description:
Lecture 14 - The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Function
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  1. What are the properties of arteries?
    • Large
    • Branching
    • Conduct blood away from heart
  2. What are the properties of arterioles
    • Small
    • High resistance
  3. What happens in capillaries
    Exchange btwn blood and tissue
  4. What is blood composed of?
    • Erythrocytes - O2 and CO2 transportation
    • Leukocytes - immune response
    • Platelets - blood clotting
    • Plasma - fluid/solutes
  5. What is the path of bloodflow in the cardiovascular system? In the systemic/pulmonary circuit?
    • Series
    • Parallel
  6. What supplies blood to the heart for maintenance?
    Heart capillaries which are supplied by coronary arteries that arise from aorta
  7. What is the name of the membrance sac surrounding the heart?
    Pericardium
  8. What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?
    • Endocardium (inner)
    • Myocardium
    • Epicardium (outer)
  9. What are 4 properties of cardiac muscle?
    • Cells smaller than skeletal muscle cells
    • Cells demonstrate branching
    • Striations are evident
    • Intercalated disks - gap junctions, desmosomes
  10. How does cardiac muscle grow?
    • Cell division during fetal development/infancy
    • Hypertrophy after infancy
  11. What are the 2 types of cells in cardiac muscle and what is the proportion of each?
    • 99% contratile cells
    • 1% autorhythmic cells
  12. What drives blood flow in heart?
    Pressure differences
  13. What keeps the AV valves from everting?
    • Papillary muscles
    • Chordae tendinae
  14. What is the conduction system?
    Autorhythmic cells that provide pathway to spread excitation through the heart
  15. What are the 2 types of cells in the conduction system?
    • Pacemaker cells
    • Conduction fibers
  16. What is the role of the conduction fibers and how fast is conduction?
    • Conduct APs initiated by pacemaker cells to myocardium
    • 4 m/s
  17. What are the 2 nodes in the heart?
    • Sinoartrial (pacemaker)
    • Atrioventricular
  18. What are the 3 types of conduction fibers in the heart?
    • Internodal pathways
    • Bundle of His
    • Purkinje fibers
  19. Why is there a delay in AV Node transmission?
    Allows blood to flow in series from atria to ventricles, if contracted at same time there would be no blood flow.
  20. What is the path of depolarization during heart beats?
    • SA Node
    • R then L atria
    • Atria contract
    • AV Node
    • Delay
    • Bundle of His
    • Bundle branches
    • Purkinje fibres
    • Ventricles contract
    • Rest
  21. What properties of cardiac contractile cells are similar to skeletal muscle?
    • T tubules
    • Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+
    • Troponin-tropomyosin regulation
  22. What properties of cardiac contractile cells are similar to smooth muscle?
    • Gap junctions
    • Extracellular Ca2+

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