Civil War and Reconstuction
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what were the strength of the north?
- 24 states and 22 mill. people
- 92% of the nations industry
- most of nations natural resources
- most railroad lines
What ware the strenghts of the south and weaknesses of south?
- 11 states 5.5 mill. whites 4 mill. blacks
- fighting a defensive war
- better suited to fight
- had better military leaders
What was the souths strategiey?
to fight a defensive war untill the north got tired or until britian came to their aid
What was Winefield scotts plan for the north called? what did it say? Did it pass?
- the anaconda plan
- the war would be long
- army needed to be trained
- blockade the south
- spilt confederecy
- it was rejected
What was the norths plan instead for about 3 years?
What were the hinderances at the homefront?
- plantation economy
- states rights- states didnt have to copperate with confederate government
In 1862 what did the south pass the first of?
conscription or draft
What happened to the southern econonmy?
- confederate money was worthless
- union blockade
Was jefferson davis a good president?
In 1863 what did the north start? what did it lead to?
Did the north use black troops?
What happened to the northern economy during the war?
an economic boom
What was lincolns major foreign problem?
what was the trent affair?
- the u.s took two confederate dipliomats to england off the british ship trent
- british threatened war and lincoln backed down
Who were the war democrats? who was one?
- democrats who supported war
- stephen douglas
Who were copperheads?
democrats who opposed war
Who were moderate republicans? Who was one?
- preserve the union
- lincolns group
Who were the radical rebpulicans?
war was to free slaves and punish the south
Wha did lincoln stertch the constitution to suspened? WHat was that?
- habeas corpus
- the right to a speedy trial
What was ex parte merryman? What did lincoln do about it?
- said lincoln could not suspened habeas corpus
- lincoln ignored it
What did the emancipation proclamation say?
all slaves in states still in rebellion were free
Did the emancipation proclamation free any slaves at the time? what were the results?
- made slavery the issue of the war
- kept britian out of the war
- if the north wins, slavery is dead
Who were the canidates in the election of 1864?
- union party
- democrat- andrew johnson
- rebpublican- lincoln
- democrats- run on platform of ending the war general gorge mcellan
- lincoln wins
Who assaisintated lincoln? What did this end?
- John wilkes booth
- any chance for reconciliation
What were the results of the civil war?
- union is preserved
- ends states rights
- 600,00 dead- worst war in american history
- wrecked southern economy
- endend slavery
- left bitterness on both sides
What was lincolns attitude on reconstuction?
- southern states had not left the union
- confederates were rebels
- wanted to pardon the rebels
- wanted to restore the union as it was, but without slavery
What were the radical republicans attidtude on reconstuction?
- states had succedded and needed to be reemeitted
- wanted to punish south,give blacks political rights, set up biracial governments
What was the blacks attitude toward reconstuction?
- beleived that freedom ment equality
- did try to streghten their istutions
- most ended up as sharecroppers
What was the souths attitude toward reconstuction?
- wanted to return to prewar times as much as possible
- limit black rights
- blamed blacks for their problems
What was lincolns 10 percent plan? did it pass?
- when 10 perent of the 1860 voters in a state take a loyaltiy oath, they could elect a new government and elect new memebers to congress
- congress rejected
What was the wade- davis bill? Did it pass?
- When the majority take a loyaltiy oath in a state they could elect a new government and memebers to congress
- lincoln veoted
What was the freedman's beurea?
- set up to help the freed slaves
- most successful in the area of education
Why did Johnson have oppostistion?
- was a democrat
What was johnsons plan for reconstuction?
- to be restored a state had to qualitfy under 10 percent plan and ratify 13th amendent(abolished slavery.
- status of blacks would be determined by states
- amnesty to all confederates who apply to the president
What was the southern response to johnsons plan?
- by the end of 1865 every state but texas qualified
- elect memebers to congress including confederate leaders
- black codes- limit rights of blacks
What did congress do to reject presidental reconstuction?
didnt seat the states eleceted representaives
What was the civil rights act of 1866? what ammendement replaced this?
- gave blacks citizenship and protected their rights
What was the congression elections of 1866? What was the result?
- the south had to ratify the 14th ammendement to be reemitted
- johnson campaighned agaisnt 14th ammendement
- result- republicans won complete control of the government excpet presidenncy
What was the first reconstuction act?
- set up 5 military districts in the south to run reconstruction
- state requirements- ratify 14th and write new constitions that protected black rights
- johnsons actions- appoints more moderate military commanders
What was the tenure office act?
said president could not remove a cabinet memeber without consent from congress
What was the command of army act?
said the president could not issue orders to the army except through the general of the army
What did the house impeach johnson for?
- violating the tenure of office act
- he is acquitted by one vote
What were the reults of the impeachment?
- maintatined the seperation of powers
- put congress in control of the governement for the next 40 years
Who won the election of 1868? Why did he win?
- U.S grant the rebluican canidate
- because of the black vote
What was the 15th ammendement?
gaurennteed blacks right to vote
What was the civil rights act of 1875? did it pass?
- outlawed discrimination in public places
- but supreme court overturned it
Were many blacks that served in the government well educated?
Who were carpetbaggers?
northerners who came south to carry out reconstuction
Who were scalawags?
southern whites who copperated with reconstuction
What did republican legislautures make contributions to?
economic rebuliding anf public education
Who where the redeemers?
white southerners who tried to end reconstuction
Who was the ku klux klan?
goal was to end reconstuction through intimidation and violence
What did the force bill give grant the power to do?
use the army to stop the kkk
What was the amnesty act?
gave former confederates politial rights
How did the south by pass the 15th ammendement?
- poll tax
- literacy test
- grandfather clause
What was the grandfather clause?
you could vote if you father or grandfather was eliglibe to vote in 1860
Did the north get tired of reconstuction?
Who were the canidates of the election of 1876?
- rep. Rutherford B. Hayes
- dem. - Samuel Tilden
What were the reulsts of the election of 1876?
- Tilden- 51% of pop. vote 184 electorial
- Hayes- 49% of pop. vote 164 elctorial
- disputed votes 21- (2 sets of return from la, fl, sc.)
- neeeded 185 to win
- commission set up to determine who got disputed votes
- hayes got them all and won
What was the compromise of 1877?
- hayes is president
- reconstuction was ended by removing federal troops
What was the legacy of civil war and reconstruction?
- abolition of slavery and constitional guarantee of black rights
- discrimination against blacks and continuance of racisim
- supremenacy of federal government over states rights
- formation of solid south
What were the jim crow laws?
segregated public places in south by law
what was the solid south?
the south always voted for democrats
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