Labor Studies Final Exam
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Explain the significance of the Lilly Ledbetter case (Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire)
- 1. Ledbetter was a manager at Goodyear
- 2. received lower raises than male coworkers
- 3. Lost the case to collect damages under Title VII because she didn't point out pay differences within statute of limitations
- 4. Obama signed Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act - EE's must file grievance within 180 days of RECEIPT OF PAYCHECK
What organization did Jack Metzgar's father belong to?
- Worked for US Steel
- Member of United Steelworkers of America (USWA), a CIO union
What does CIO stand for?
- Committee for Industrial Organization
- Led by John L. Lewis of the Mine Workers
What does AFL stand for?
American Federation of Labor
Explain the concept of the glass escalator
- A concept that men who work in traditionally female-dominated occupations, such as kindergarten teachers or nurses, take the hostile work environments they face and are able to use it as motivation to better their careers
- Example: Male kindergarten teacher who later becomes a school principal with more money and authority.
What is the Family Medical Leave Act?
- Federal legislation
- Allows EE's to take up to 12 weeks unpaid leave and keep position with employer
- Use leave to care for newborn or newly adopted children or other needy family members
- Only covers EE's who have worked full-time for more than one year
- Only applies to EE's who work for a company that has more than 50 workers
What union coordinated the Justice for Janitors campaign?
Service Employees International Union (SEIU) Local 399
What is the Fair Labor Standards Act?
- Enacted by Roosevelt administration
- Required employers to pay time-and-a-half for time worked beyond 40 hours per week
What is human capital?
The technical skills, experience and education of a worker
Why was Salt of the Earth a controversial film?
- Film was released during McCarthy era
- Advanced feminist social and political points of view
- Writer/producer/director were alleged Communist sympathizers
- Sponsored by a union that had been expelled from CIO for alleged communist-dominated leadership (International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers)
What does the film Amreeka suggest about employment-workplace issues for contemporary immigrants to the United States?
Contemporary immigrants face the same discrimination immigrants from other generations faced
ESSAY: Besides fight for higher wages, what do unions do?
- File grievances: Mauer says even if union doesn't expect to win, filing a grievance serves as a warning to ER to stop taking the action, can build solidarity among members, or show an employer that a problem needs to be addressed
- Take away the arbitrary power of management over workers - Metzger gave example of workers trying to gain foreman's approval in order to get work by bringing gifts and doing chores at foreman's home for free
ESSAY: How are the workplace experiences of immigrant workers in NYC in early 21st century different from early 20th century? What are implications for labor militancy?
- Many of today's immigrant workers are in the US illegally
- Decline of manufacturing and rise in service jobs that are subcontracted created an informal economy where immigrants typically land in 21st century - low paying jobs, unregulated
- Decline of union power results in exploitation of immigrant workers
- Labor militancy results from social isolation, the tendency for immigrants to work for smaller companies with fewer resources, and lack of choice for immigrants to move to another job
ESSAY: How does Mika B's experience reflect general patterns in the American workplace?
Like most women in America today, B. was paid much less than her male coworkers on the show. Attempts to get a raise failed until B realized her value to the show and decide she would quit if not given a raise. At that point the power balance shifted to B's favor, because the show was doing well and MSNBC couldn't afford to risk losing her.
ESSAY: Explain the economic status of women workers in NJ today.
- NJ women earn more than others in the US, but due to higher cost of living the median wage only covers the basics to survive
- Women contribute over 1/3 of the family income
- Even with equal educations, men earn more than women
Current immigration law allows "the best of all possible worlds" for employers seeking low-wage EE's. What does he mean? Relate to "Undocumented Latinas".
- Makes low-wage immigrant labor readily available
- Illegal status increases employers' leverage over workers in all aspects
- Chang points this out with nannies - illegal aliens make as little as $175/week and legal workers up to $600
- Illegals who work as nannies are often poorly treated - sleeping on floors, working on call 24 hours a day.
- Employers hold the girls' visas so they can't leave and often hold their pay too
How has the debate over US immigration policy changed since 2008?
- Focus has shifted from trying to control illegal immigration because stricter border policies are ineffective
- The Obama administration is now focusing less on punishing undocumented workers and more on punishing their employers
- Would in effect lessen the demand for illegal immigrants
- Employers object because it shifts burden to them and it is difficult to know the immigration status of a potential employee
What states have lowest unionization rate?
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia
What states had highest unionization rates?
California, New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Michigan, NJ and Ohio
What occupations have high unionization rates in 2011?
- Education,training, and library occupations
- Protective service occupations
Why did union membership grow in the public sector in the 1960s and 70s?
1958-NYC passed "Little Wagner Act" permitting municipal EE's to organize
ESSAY: What is a worker's role in the grievance process?
- Approach union rep to report the problem
- State accurate facts
- State why you are concerned about the issue
- Give additional information to union as steps progress
- May or may not attend grievance meetings
- If attending, take a supporting role and let union rep lead
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