Drugs and Society Final

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Author:
acirerica
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189225
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Drugs and Society Final
Updated:
2012-12-12 23:32:49
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chapter 6
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  1. the main classes of psychedelics are
    • indole psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin) have a indole ring shape giving them their name
    • Phenylalkylamines (mescaline, "ecstasy")
    • others (ketamine, PCP, etc)
    • Cannabinols
  2. the effects of psychedelics depend on
    • the size of the dose
    • past experience with the drug
    • emotional makeup
    • mood
    • surroundings
  3. emotional/mental effects
    • illusions
    • delusions
    • hallucinations
  4. illusions
    mistaken perceptions
  5. delusions
    mistaken ideas or beliefs
  6. hallucinations
    sensory experiences not related to reality
  7. LSD made illegal
    February 1, 1996
  8. Founder of LSD
    Dr. Albert Hoffman found accidentally in 1943
  9. Most LSD manufactured in
    San Francisco Bay area
  10. nations annual consumption of LSD
    11 lbs
  11. Crystalline LSD is Dissolved in alcohol
    • drops are put on blotter paper, pills, powders, microdots.
    • each drop usually contains 10 to 50 micrograms or mics
  12. effectss of LSD are
    • dose dependent
    • 30-50 micrograms act as stimulant with mild euphoria
    • 150-300 micrograms produce hallucinations
  13. LSD stimulates specific serotonin receptors called
    5HT2A receptors
  14. LSD effects begin
    15-60 min after ingestion
  15. mental effects of LSD
    • sensory distoriton including synesthesia (mixing of the senses)
    • dreaminess, depersonalization
    • altered mood, impaierd concentration
    • difficulty in expressing oneself
    • loss of judgement; diminishment of self-preservation instincts
  16. bad trips
    • usually occur with new users or experienced users who take too much
    • reactions include anxiety, fear, and paranoia
  17. unusual for first time users to
    experence permanent psychotic or schizophrenic disability
  18. 1957 life magazine
    introduced psychedelic mushrooms to americans
  19. there are about __ species of mushrooms
    75
  20. doses of __mg to __mg of mushrooms cause sensory distortions.
    10-60
  21. effects of mushrooms
    • initially nausea then chages in visceral sensations
    • changes in sight
    • changes in hearing
    • changes in taste
    • changes in toughc
    • altered states of consciousness
    • sensations similar to LSD but with less disassociation and panic
  22. morning glory seeds contain a mild LSD like substance
    several hundered seeds are needed to obtain an effect
  23. henylalkylamine psychedelics
    • related to adrenalin and amphetamins
    • effect take longer to appear then LSD or other indole psychedelics
  24. Mescaline (peyote)
    is the active component of peyote and San Pedro cacti
  25. effects of phenylalkylamine psychedelics
    • seven to eight buttons is average dose
    • effects last twelve hours and are similar to LSD. very colorful visions and hallucinations are common
    • each use is accompanied by severe vomiting
  26. MDMA (ecstacy)
    schedule I drug in 1988
  27. Dosages of ecstacy range from
    75 to 125 mg ($10-40 but higher during shortages
  28. physical effects (ecstacy)
    • increased heart rate and respiration
    • sweating
    • hyperactivity
    • brucism (clenching of the teeth)
  29. high doses of ecstasy lead to
    • malignant hyperthermia
    • water toxicity
    • seziur activity
  30. mental effects MDMA (ecstacy)
    • last 3-4 hours
    • feelings of happiness
    • increased empathy
    • more self-awareness
    • heightened self-esteem
    • clarity
    • mild distortions of perception
  31. MDMA works by
    causing a massive release of seotonin form pre-synaptic vesicles.
  32. Ketamine also known as
    Special-K
  33. Ketamine is an
    • animal and human anesthetic
    • diverted form medical and veterinary supplies for illegal use
  34. Ketamine produces
    • a dreamlike state with mild euphoria and illusions which last abou 6 hours
    • pain sensation is also reduced
  35. Phyencyclidine also known as
    • PCP
    • angel dust
    • peep
    • KJ
    • Shermans
  36. Phencyclidine once used as
    • a human and veterinary anesthetic
    • discontinued due to toxic side effects
  37. Effects of Phencyclidine
    • toxic effects are frequent and severe
    • mental effects include sesory deprivation and "mind-body" seperation
  38. high dose of Phencyclidine
    • catatonia
    • coma
    • convulsions
    • it does not impart super human strenght but reduces response to painful stimuli
  39. Salvia Divinorum is a member of the
    sage family and has been used for centuries by medicine men of the Soerra Madre in northeastern Mexico
  40. Salvia Divinorum active ingredient is
    Salvinorum A
  41. effects of salvia divinorum last
    7-10 minutes when smoked
  42. Marijuana plant also called
    • cannabis or hemp
    • hemp is the male species of plant
  43. historically marijuana was used as
    • a medicine
    • fiber sources
    • intoxicant in India China and the American colonies
  44. 360 different chemicals in marijuana __ of which have psychoactive effects
    • 30
    • delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most potent
  45. 1992 specific receptors that bind ___ were discovered in the brain
    THC
  46. 1995 the first endogenous neurotransmitter that binds these receptors was discovered and named...
    • anandamide
    • all of the chemicals that bind THC receptors are classified s endocannabinoids
  47. CB1 receptors are found mostly in the brain in areas that...
    • regulate short term memory (hippocampus)
    • onse sense of novelty (amygdala)
    • and the sensory appeal of food (hypothalamus)
  48. Cannabis indica is
    a shorter bushier version of cannabis sativa (cannabis) sometimes called skunk weed because of the strong odor
  49. in india leaves stems and flowers are used to produce different potencies
    • bhang is made from leaves and stems with the lowest potencies
    • ganja is made from stronger leaves and flowering tops
    • hashish is made from the resin and is the richest in THC
  50. Drug tests for THC
    • someone not a frequent user would test negative 24-72 hours after smoking a joint
    • chronic users a month to pass
  51. physical effects of marijuana
    • sedation
    • bloodshot eyes
    • increase in appetite
    • increase in heart rate
    • loss of muscular coordination
    • decreased traking ability
    • overdose is extremely rare
  52. smoking marijuana
    damages lungs and breathing passages and increases risk of lung cancer, bronchitis and emphysema

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