Biological psych 12,14,18

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Biological psych 12,14,18
2012-12-12 23:59:44
bio psych

bio psych
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  1. Uncommon condition where output from the autonomic nervous system to the body fails, either completely or almost completely
    pure autonomic failure
  2. rapid breathing in particular makes people worry that they are suffocating, and they experience this, marked by extreme sympathetic system arousal
    panic attack
  3. forebrain areas surrounding the thalamus-regarded as critical for emotion
    limbic system
  4. Activity of the left hemisphere, especially its frontal and temporal loves, marked by low to moderate autonomic arousal and a tendency to approach, which could characterize either happiness or anger
    Behavioral Activation System 
  5. increased activity of the frontal and temporal loves of the right hemisphere is associated with this, which increases attention and arousal, inhibits action, and stimulates emotions such as fear and disgust
    Behavioral Inhibition System
  6. serotonin's main metabolite
  7. response to an unexpected loud noise
    startle reflex
  8. response to any threat to the body (stress), in addition to its specific effect
    generel adaptation syndrome
  9. hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex
  10. the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland
    HPA axis
  11. hormone that stimulates the human adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol, which enhances metabolic activity and elevates blood levels of sugar and other nutrients
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  12. cells that protect the body against viruses, bacteria, and other intruders
    immune system
  13. most important element of the immune system
  14. Y-shaped proteins that attach to particular kinds of antigens
  15. surface proteins
  16. small proteins that combat infections and also communicate with the brain to elicit appropriate behaviors
  17. set of axons that the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex exchange information 
    corpus callosum
  18. division of labor between two hemispheres
  19. section of the temporal cortex that is larger in the left hemisphere for 65% of people
    planum temporale
  20. connects the anterior parts of the cerebral cortex
    anterior commissure
  21. language impairment
  22. area of brain that, if damaged, tends to result in aphasia
    Broca's area
  23. characterized by poor language comprehension and impaired ability to remember the names of objects
    Wernicke's aphasia
  24. difficulty recalling the names of objects
  25. belief that mind and body are different kinds of substance that exist independently
  26. belief that the universe consists of only one kind of substance
  27. view that everything that exists is material, or physical
  28. view that only the mind really exists and that the physical world could not exist unless some mind were aware of it
  29. view that mental processes and certain kinds of brain processes are the same thing, described in different terms
    identity position
  30. brief visual stimulus is preceded and followed by longer interfering stimuli
  31. difficulty of ignoring words and saying the color of the ink
    stroop effect
  32. tendency to ignore the left side of the body or the left side of objects
    spatial neglect
  33. operate by blocking the transporter proteins that reabsorb serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron after their release
  34. full-blown episodes of mania
    Bipolar I
  35. characterized by restless activity, excitement, laughter, self-confidence, rambling speech, and loss of inhibitions
  36. most effective treatment for bipolar disorder
    lithium salts
  37. controls production of dendritic spines
  38. tendency for people born in winter to have slightly greater probability of developing schizophrenia than people born at other times of the year
    season-of-birth effect
  39. relieves the positive symptoms of schizophrenia for most, though not all, patients
  40. holds that schizophrenia results from excess activity at dopamine synapses in certain brain areas
    dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia
  41. characterized by hallucinations and delusions, the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
    substance-induced psychotic disorder
  42. hypothesis that says taht the problem relates in part deficient activity at glutamate synapses, especially in the prefrontal cortex
    glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia
  43. drug that inhibits the NMDA glutamate receptors
  44. set of neurons that project from the midbrain tegmentum to the limbic system
    mesolimbocortical system
  45. produced by the effect on the basal ganglia, characterized by tremors and other involunatry movements that develop gradually and to varying degrees among different patients
    tardive dyskinesia
  46. drugs that alleviate schizophrenia without produced movement problems
    second-generation antipsychotics