The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.
The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.
A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics.
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions.
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.
A place where shares in a company or business enterprise are bought and sold.
Wealthy landowners who were members of the bourgeoisie.
Little Ice Age
century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Holy Roman Empire
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain.
Civil War in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I.
English Civil War
A palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near this city.
The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful.
Balance Of Power
King of England from 1509 to 1547 and founder of the Church of England, he broke with the Catholic Church because the pope would not grant him a divorce.
King Henry VIII
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe-named heliocentric theory
This scientist proved Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method.
Defined the laws of motion and gravity. Tried to explain motion of the universe.
This English philosophe argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights. Life Liberty Land
treaty that ended the Peasants Revolt kept the German states separated
The Peace of Augsburg
one kept track of the planets' movements for 20 years, the other used the data and figured the orbits aren't circles and are ellipses
Brahe & Kepler
Charles V HRE
king of spain and holy roman emperor who began the hapsburg dynasty; created a bureaucracy in spain; abdicated all of his thrones in 1556 possibly because he was unable to preserve the church against luther