Bio review con't

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  1. Sperm Cells Structure
    • Head - contain a nucleus and DNA
    • Midpiece- contain mitochondria
    • Tail- flagellum for movement
  2. Male sex Hormon
    • Gonadotropin releasing hormone:
    • -Source: hypothalamus
    • -Function: stimulates secretion of LH and FSH
    • LH (Leutinizing):
    • Source: anterior pituitary gland
    • Functions: stimulates secretion of testosterone
    • FSH (folicle-Stimulating)
    • Source: anterior pituitary gland
    • Function: prompts spermatogenesis
    • Testosteron:
    • Source: interstitial cell in testes
    • Function: involve in development and maintenance of reproductive organs
  3. External female Genitalia:Vulva
    • External female sex organ
    • Ex. mons pubis, labia majora, minora, clitoris and cesibule
  4. External female Genitalia: Mons pubis
    Fatty layer of skin covering pubic symphysis
  5. External female Genitalia: Labia majora
    • Larger, outer feild of skin
    • Equivalent to male scrotum
  6. External female Genitalia: Labia minora
    thin layer, inner folds of skin
  7. External female Genitalia: Clitoris
    • Small erectile structure located in vestibule 
    • Equivalent  to male penis
  8. External female Genitalia:Vestibule
    • Space in which vagina and urethra are located 
    • Image Upload 1
  9. Female reproductive organs
    • Ovaries
    • Uterine (fallopian) tube
    • Uterus
    • Vagina
  10. Female reproductive organ: Ovaries
    • Primary female reproductive organ
    • Produces oocytes and sex hormaones
    • One on either side of uterus
    • Ovarian ligament - anchor ovaries to uterus
    • Suspensory ligaments - anchor ovaries that contain oocytes 
  11. Female reproductive organ: Uterine(Fallopian) tubes
    • Part of uterus which extend toward ovaries and receive oocytes
    • Frimbriae: finger-like structures around opening of the uterine that helps sweep oocyte into uterine tubes
    • -Tubal ligation
    • Ectopic Pregnacy - if fertilized oocyte(zygote) implants somewhere beside uterus(usually in uterine tube)
  12. Female reproductive organ: Uterus
    • Pear side structure located in pelvis cavity
    • Function: receive, retain, and provides nourishment for fertilized oocyte, where embryo resides and develope
    • Body: main part
    • Cervix: narrow region that leads to vagina
    • Fundus: superior part
  13. Female reproductive organ: Uterus layer
    • Perimetrium(serous) - outermost layer
    • Myometrium (muscular) - middle layer compose of smooth muscle
    • Endometrium - Innermost layer that is sloughed off suring menstruation 
  14. Female reproductive organ:Vagina
    • Extends from uterus to outside of body 
    • Females copulation organ that receieves penis during intercourse
    • Allows mentrual flow
    • Invole in childbirth
    • Contain very muscular wall and mucous membrane
    • Very acidic to keep bacteria our
  15. Follicle and Oocyte Development
    • Feuts:
    • Oocyte - oogonium, primary oocyte
    • Folicle - Primordial folicle
    • Puberty:
    • Oocyte - primary oocyte
    • Follicle - primary follicle
    • To menopause:
    • Oocyte - Primary oocyte
    • Follicle - Secondary follicle
    • Menopause:
    • Oocyte - Primary and secondary Oocyte
    • Follicle - mature follicle
  16. Ovulation
    • When mature follicle ruptures forcing oocyte into peritoneal(pelvis) cavity 
    • Due to LH
    • Corpus luteum:
    • -Mature follicle after ovulation
    • -degenerates if eggs is not fertilized
  17. Fertilization
    • Occur in the uterine tube
    • Sperm penetrates egg
    • Forming zygote
    • Zygote undergoes cell division to become a blastocyst
    • Arrives in the uterus by day 7-8 after ovulation 
    • Implant on uterus
  18. Menarche
    First episode of menstrual bleeding in puberty
  19. Mammary glands
    • Organs of milk production in breast
    • Modifies sweat glands
    • Consists of lobes covered by adipose
    • Lobes, duct, lobules are altered during  lactation to expel mil
    • Lacteriferous duct
  20. Female Sex hormone
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone:
    • Source - hypothalamus
    • Function - Stimulates secretion of LH and FSH
    • LH(lutenizing)
    • Source - anterior pituitary gland
    • Function - causes ovulation
    • FSH(Follicle-stimulation hormone)
    • Source - anterior pituitary gland
    • Function - signals the follicle in ovaries to begin developmet
    • Estrogen:
    • Source - Follices of ovaries
    • Function -affects endometrial lining of uterus, breast, regulates secretion of LH and FSh
    • Progesterone
    • Source -Ovary
    • Function - affects endometrial lining of the uterus, secretion, breast, affect LF and FSH. Also secondary sexual charac. 
  21. Menstual cycle
    • Series of changes that occur in sexually mature nonpregnant females
    • Menses - time when endometrium is shed from uterus
    • Average 28 days and result from cyclical changes that occur in endometrium
  22. Stages of Mentrual Cycle
    • Days 1-5 Menses (sheding of endometrium)
    • -mentrual bleeding
    • -estrogen and prgesteron level are low
    • follicle begins to mature
    • Day 6-13 Proliferactive (between end of mens and ovulation)
    • -endometrium rebuilds
    • -estrogen levels begin to increase
    • -progesteron levels reamin low
    • -follicle matures
    • Day 14 Ovulation
    • -oocyte is release due to LH 
    • -estrogen levels high
    • -Progesterone level are increaseing
    • -cervical mucus thins
    • Day 15-28 Secretory (between oculation and next menses)
    • -endometrium is preparing for implantation
    • -estrogen level decrease
    • -progesteron level high
    • cervical mucus thickens
  23. Layers of Digestive system
    • Mucosa:
    • -innermost layer
    • -secretes mucus
    • Submucosa:
    • -above mucosa
    • -contains blood vessels, nerves, small glands
    • Muscularis:
    • -above submucosa
    • -longitudial circular, and oblique muscle
    • Serosa/adventitia:
    • -outermost layer
    • -peritoneum is present called serosa
    • -no peritoneum then called adventitia (ex. Esophagus)
  24. Peritoneum
    • Layers of smooth epithelial tissue; serous membrane
    • Mesenteries - Keep organs in place and connective tissue of organ in abdominal cavity
    • Lesser Omentum - mensentary connecting lesser curvature of stomach to liver and diaphram
    • Greater omentum - mesntary connecting greater curvature of stomach to tranverse collon and posterior body wal
  25. Oral cavity
    • Contain - palate, tongue, gums, lips
    • Adult = permanet or secondary teeth (32 teeth)
    • Children = primary or deciduous teeth also called baby teeth or milk teeth (20 primary teeth)
  26. Oral Cavity Plates
    • Palate - roof or oral cavity
    • Hard palate - anterior part
    • Soft palate - posterior part
  27. Salivary glands
    • produce saliva which contain enzyme to breakdown carbs into glucose and food
    • cleanse mouth
    • dissolve and moisten food
    • includes submandibular, sublingual, parotd
    • mumps is inflammatory of parotid gland
  28. Amylase
    salicary enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates
  29. Lysozyme
    salivary enxyme that are active against bacteria
  30. Pharynx
    • throat
    • connects mouth to esophagus
  31. Esophagus
    • tube that connects pharyns to stomach
    • transport food to stomach: Peristalsis - movement of foos
    • Joints stomach at cadiach sphincer (lower esphageal sphincer)
  32. Swallowing
    • Voluntary phase:Bolus(mass of food) formed in mouth and push into pharynx
    • Pharyngeal phase: swallowing reflex initiated when bolus stimulates receptors in pharynx
    • Esophageal phase: moves food from pharynx to stomach
    • Peristalsis: wave-like contructions moves food through digestive tract
  33. Muscularies layers
    • Outer lingitudial
    • Middle cirular
    • inner oblique

    Rugae - large fold in the mucosa and submucosa that allowa stomach to strecth
  34. Inner lining: Mucosa
    • Gastric Pits - numerous tubelic folds (openings for the gastric glands)
    • 5 epithelial cell types in stomach lining:
    • -Surface mucous cell - produce mucus
    • -Mucous neck cells - produce mucus
    • -Parietal cells- produce hydroclotic acid and intrinsic factor
    • -Endocrine cells -produce regulatory chemicals
    • -Chief cells: produce pepsinogen  a precursor of pepsin 
  35. Hunger pangs
    Stomach is stimulated to contact by low blood glucose level usually 12-24 hours after meal
  36. Chyme
    Past-like substance that forms when food begin to be broken down
  37. Regulation of stomach secretions
    • Three phases
    • Cephalic phase - think about food
    • Gastric phase - go for it
    • Intestinal phase - low down
  38. Small intestine
    • 6 meters in length
    • major absortive organ
    • Large surface area: circular folds, cilli, and microvilli
    • Chymes takes 3-5 hours to pass through
    • Parts:
    • Doudenum - 25cm long 
    • -contain cells, endocrine cells, bile and pacreatic duct
    • Jejunum - 2.5 meters long and absorbs nutrients
    • Ileum - 3.5 meters long, Peyer patches
  39. Large intestine
    • Function: is to absorb water from indigestible food: takes 18-24 hours to pass
    • Parts: Cecum, colon, anal canal and rectum
    • Cecum - joins small intestinal at ileocecal junction and has appendix attach
    • Appendix - 9 cm structure that is often removed
    • Colon - 1.5 meters long which contains ascending, transverse, decending and sigmoid region
    • Rectum - straight tube that begins at sigmoid and ends at anal canal
    • Anal canal - last 2-3 cm log and help control  defecation
  40. Liver
    • weights 3 lbs
    • in right and upper quadrant of abdomen under diaphram
    • Porta - gate where blood vesels, ducts, nerves enter and exits
    • Recieve blood from hepatic artery
  41. Liver duct
    • Hepatic duct - transport bile of liver
    • Common hepatic duct - formed from left and right hepatic duct
    • Custic duct - joins comon hepatic duct. also from gallbladder
    • Common bile duct - formed from coomon hepalic duct and custic duct
  42. Function of liver
    • sotres and process nutriends
    • detoxifies harmful chemicals
    • synthesizes new molecule
    • secretes 700ml of bile each day
    • Bile - dulutes and neutralizes stomach acid and breaks down fats
  43. Pancreas
    • located posterior to stomach and inferior part of left upper quadrant
    • Endocrine tissue have pancreatic islet that produce insulin and glucagon
    • Exocine tissue produce digestive enzymes
  44. Digestive process
    • Digestion - breakdown food occurs in the stomach and mouth
    • Propulsion - moves food trough digestive tract includes swallowing and peistalsis
    • Absorption - promarily in doudenum and jejunum of small intestine
    • Defecation - elimination of waste in the form of feces
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Bio review con't
2012-12-13 06:49:09
Bio review con

Bio review con't
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