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2012-12-13 02:13:50
ANAT390 Female Reproductive

ANAT390 Lecture 32 Female Reproductive II
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  1. Describe the mucosa of the oviduct.
    • Simple columnar epl containing ciliated cells which beat towards the uterus pushing the egg along and secretory (peg) cells which produce nourishment for the egg
    • Loose CT which is vascularized
  2. Describe the muscularis of the oviduct.
    smooth muscle- contractile properties help move the egg along
  3. Describe the serosa of the oviduct.
    Simple squamous epl
  4. What is the endometrium.
    • aka mucosa of the uterus
    • simple columnar epl which is secretory to provide nourishment for the egg via tubular glands
    • loose CT
    • 2 layer- functional layer which is shed at menstruation and the basal layer with generates a new functional layer
  5. What is the myometrium?
    • aka. muscularis of the uterus
    • 95% of the wall
    • Arteries which supply the endometrium must pass through the myometrium- large arteries send branches in
    • Spiral/helical arteries supply the functional layer and the straight arteries supply the basal layer
  6. How does the myometrium change during pregnancy and labour?
    • During pregnancy- size and number of smooth muscle cells increase.
    • During labour- oxytocin, released from the posterior pituitary, causes muscles to contract.
  7. Describe the serosa of the uterus.
    Simple squamous epl
  8. Name the four hormones involved in endocrine control of the uterine cycle.
    • peptide hormones- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • steroid hormones- estrogen and progesterone
  9. What physical changes occur during days 1-4 of the uterine cycle?
    • Menstrual Phase
    • Helical arteries contrict
    • Functional layer dies via cell lysis
    • Helical arteries rupture due to shrinking of func. layer
    • Mensus or discharge is blood and functional layer tissue
  10. Which hormone(s) trigger the physical changes during days 1-4 of the uterine cycle?
    The functional layer requires mainly progesterone for survival.  When fertilization doesn't occur, the corpus luteum of ovary degenerates, stopping estrogen and progesterone synthesis.  Estrogen and progesterone are no longer being produced, so the functional layer dies.
  11. What changes occur during days 4-14 of the uterine cycle?
    • Proliferative phase
    • Estrogen levels are increasing
    • Estrogen causes the rapid proliferation of endometrium, replacing surface epithelium, glands, and loose CT
  12. What changes occur during days 14-28 of the uterine cycle?
    Ovulation has occurred.  The increased levels of progesterone causes endometrium to increase in size due to synthesis of nutrients by epithelial and CT cells.  These nutrients are used by the fertilized egg until the placenta forms.
  13. What hormonal changes occur during/after ovulation?
    The ovaries are stimulated by LH to make corpus luteum whose cells produce lg amounts of progesterone as well as estrogen.
  14. Describe the structure of the cervix.
    • Walls have 3 layers (mucosa, muscularis, serosa) 
    • Mucosa: Simple columnar epithelium
    • secretory- at ovulation the secretions become less viscous to enable sperm penetration.  
    • Very dense Ct to hold the fetus in place.
  15. Describe the structure of the vagina.
    • Walls have 3 layers (mucosa, muscularis, serosa)
    • Mucosa: stratified squamous non-keratinized epl with glycogen (broken down into lactic acid, keep the pH low to prevent infection)
    • fibroelastic CT- allows for expansion and contraction
  16. What part of the female reproductive site is a common site of cancer?
    Transition from cervix to vagina vecause there is a transition from simple columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium
  17. Describe the general structure of the mammary glands.
    • 15-20 individual exocrine glands
    • Compound tubuloalveolar (tubuloacinar) glands
  18. What germ layer(s) did the mammary glands develop from?
    • Epl (functional unit of the gland) - ectoderm
    • CT (supportive) - mesoderm
  19. What is the lactiferous duct?
    Duct carrying exocrine secretions which surfaces at the nipple
  20. What is the lactiferous sinus?
    Reservoir for milk, part of the lactiferous duct system
  21. What type of epithelium are the nipple and areola made of?
    stratified squamous keratinized epithelium
  22. Describe the ductal epithelium of the mammary gland.
    • The smaller ducts and alveoli make up the secretory part of the glands
    • Clusters of smaller ducts and alveoli are called lobules.
    • They are made up of simple cuboidal epithelium and myoepithelial cells (epithelial cells with properties of muscle- they can contract and are stimulated to contract during lactation)
  23. What anatomical changes occur in the breast during lactation?
    • Proliferation of secretory ducts and alveoli- hyperplasia
    • Cells synthesize milk and increase in size- hypertrophy
    • Lobules fill the mammory glands- CT is pushed to the side
  24. What are the components of milk?
    • Major protein is casein
    • major carbohydrate is lactose
    • medium chain FAs
  25. Describe the structures seen in an EM micrograph of a lactating breast.
    • Apical surface: tight junctions prevent backflow and microvilli increase surface area so there is more room for vesicles to fuse
    • Cytoplasm: RER, Golgi, SER, lipid droplets
  26. What type of secretion occurs in mammary gland secretory cells?
    Both apocrine (the apical portion of the secreting cell is released along with the secretory products) and merocrine (secretory vesicles merge with PM releasing contents into ducts) secretion at the same time.
  27. How do myoepithelial cells appear under EM?
    They have long cytoplasmic processes with myofibrils
  28. What are the functions of prolactin and oxytocin in lactation?
    • prolactin: stimulates synthesis and secretion of milk 
    • oxytocin: stimulates milk ejection
  29. What is the most common site of breast cancer?
    Transition between the duct and the secretory portion of the mammary gland