BIOL41 Exam 3 -1

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189261
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BIOL41 Exam 3 -1
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2012-12-13 02:45:41
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microbio
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BIOL41 Exam 3 -1
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  1. cell wall antibiotics
    • target PTG
    • contain -lactam ring
    • penicillins
  2. cell membrane antibiotics
    • disrupe membrane fcn by forming pores for cytoplasm to come out
    • polymyxin, amphotericin
  3. protein synthesis antibiotics (4 main inhibitors)
    • 1) aminoglycosides
    • 2) tetracycline
    • 3) chloramphenicol
    • 4) erythromycin
  4. antimetabolites
    prevent precursors to important proteins from being made
  5. primary targets of antiviral drugs
    • prevention of attachment/release
    • DNA synthesis
  6. 3 antiviral agents discussed
    • 1) interferon
    • 2) nucleotide analogs
    • 3) drugs to prevent attachement
  7. superinfection
    • secondary infection that is a result of antibiotic use
    • population of body microbes affected with broad spectrum antibiotic taken
  8. methods of action for attachment prevention
    • block receptor on cell
    • block enzymatic activity on surface of cell to inhibit release/attachment of virus
  9. drug resistance
    • microbe used to be sensitive to drug, but no longer is
    • ex: MERSA
  10. MERSA
    methacillin resistant S. aureus
  11. How to combat drug resistance (4)
    • 1) maintain high concentration of drug in body
    • 2) combination/synergistic drugs
    • 3) limit use
    • 4) new drugs
  12. resident microbiota of skin
    • areas of skin that are more moist have more microbes
    • very few species on conjunctiva
  13. resident microbiota of respiratory tract
    • mose has unique microbiota
    • sparse in trachea/bronchii
    • none in alveoli
  14. resident microbiota of upper GI
    • colonize surface of mouth
    • found in large numbers in saliva
    • scant in stomach/small intestine (too acidic)
  15. resident microbiota of lower GI
    • mostly strict anaerobes
    • >400 species ID'd
    • mutualistic
  16. flora balance disruptors (7)
    • 1) stress
    • 2) starvation
    • 3) parasitic organisms
    • 4) altitude changes
    • 5) diarrhea
    • 6) antibiotics
    • 7) probiotics
  17. resident microbiota of the urinary & reproductive systems
    • mix of skin & gut microbes
    • change during puberty, menopause, with menstrual cycle
  18. Sites that do NOT have normal flora
    • alveoli
    • bladder, kidneys, ureter
  19. pathogenicity
    ability of a pathogen to produce an infectious disease in an organism
  20. pathogen
    infectious agent that causes disease in its host
  21. virulence
    • how sick a pathogen makes you
    • determined by how many virulence factors a microbe possesses
  22. virulence factor
    molecules expressed and secreted by pathogens to infect its host
  23. infection
    microbes growing in a host and moving farther in
  24. contamination
    microbe gets on you
  25. disease
    outward symptoms of an infection 
  26. toxin
    poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms
  27. intoxication
    caused by a toxin produced by microbes from outside the body and then ingested by a person
  28. toxemia
    presence of toxins in the blood

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