ENVS320 Atmosphere

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ENVS320 Atmosphere
2012-12-13 19:28:36

Terms and concepts from the atmosphere powerpoint (module 7)
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  1. Name the 4 regions of the atmosphere from closest to earth to farthest
    • Troposphere
    • Stratosphere
    • Mesosphere
    • Thermosphere
  2. Most of the mass of the atmosphere is contained in the region of the ____
    troposphere (it contains up to 75% of the atmosphere's mass)
  3. Which region of the atmosphere has the highest concentration of ozone?
  4. In the troposphere, temperature ____ with increasing altitude because the heating occurs at the _________
    • decreases
    • surface of the earth
  5. In the stratosphere, temperature _______ with increasing altitude
    • increases
    • Why? Because the higher altitudes are closer to the sun, and the ozone absorbs the sun's radiation
  6. In the mesosphere, as altitude increases, ozone concentration _____ and therefore temperature ________
    • decreases
    • decreases
  7. In what region of the atmosphere is there so much radiation from the sun that ionization occurs readily?
  8. Turbulent vertical mixing of air occurs in the ____
  9. Name 6 common air pollutants
    • Carbon Monoxide
    • Lead
    • Ozone
    • W Particulate Matter
    • Nitrogen oxides
    • Sulfur dioxide
    • (notice this spells CLO[W]NS, but the W stands for an upside down M for particulate matter)
  10. In which region of the atmosphere is ozone photochemically produced?
    The troposphere
  11. PM
    Particulate Matter
  12. The gas composition of the atmosphere is
    • 78% Nitrogen
    • 21% Oxygen
    • 0.9% Argon
  13. Is ozone still considered a pollutant if it isn't at ground level?
    No, ozone in the stratosphere is a good thing because it absorbs harmful UV radiation
  14. This pollutant harms vegetation
  15. Is particulate matter solids only?
    No, PM may be composed of small particles or liquid droplets
  16. Which air pollutant reduces oxygen delivery in the body?
    CO Carbon Monoxide
  17. Coal burning is a major source of what common air pollutant?
  18. Lachrymator (or Lacrimator)
    A substance that causes your eyes to water (tear gas)
  19. What air pollutant distributes through the body in the blood and accumulates in the bones?
    Lead - Pb
  20. This common air pollutant is persistent in the environment and accumulates in soil
    Lead - Pb
  21. PM10
    Particulate matter of less than 10 um in diameter
  22. PM2.5
    Particulate matter of less than 2.5 um in diameter
  23. Name two types of smog
    • London
    • Photochemical (also known as LA smog)
  24. When radiation hits nitrogen dioxide, this can form
    • ozone
    • PANs (peroxyacetyl nitrates)
  25. What three things are required for photochemical smog production?
    • Sun
    • No wind
    • Pollution (particularly NO2)
  26. Name two sources of H2S gas
    • Sour gas extraction
    • Natural wetlands
  27. Name two common indoor air pollutants
    • Cigarette smoke
    • Aerosol spray (such as hair spray, which used to contain carcinogenic chemicals and/or diethyl phthalate which causes birth defects)
  28. This air pollutant is produced naturally by valcanoes and forest fires, and anthropogenically from coal burning, oil-fuelled furnaces and vehicles
    Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
  29. What is the most important gas related to acid rain?
    Sulphur Oxides
  30. What are the four major nitrogen gasses in air emissions?
    • NO
    • NO2
    • N2O
    • NH3
  31. NOx refers to
    NO and NO2
  32. A natural source of ammonia is
    Anaerobic decomposition
  33. When NO gets oxidized the result is
  34. When NO2 gets photolyzed (hit by a photon) the result is
    NO and ozone
  35. NO2 can get stored and transported in compounds called
    reservoir species
  36. Name two reservoir species for NO2
    • PANs (peroxyacyl nitrates)
    • Nitryl Chloride (ClNO2)
  37. GHG
    Greenhouse Gas
  38. Global warming is likely to be greatest where on earth?
    At polar latitudes
  39. The term for reflection of light back into the atmosphere
  40. What type of radiation does the earth emit?
  41. Name 3 ways that nitrogen adversly affects the atmosphere
    • Acid rain
    • Smog
    • Ozone creation
  42. What are 3 positives of the greenhouse effect?
    • It keeps the earth warm enough for life
    • We can have liquid water
    • Ecological functions can continue