Chapter 12 - Human Exceptionality

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Chapter 12 - Human Exceptionality
2012-12-13 11:00:41

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  1. Severe Disability
    Significant disabilities/impairments in intellectual physical (motor) and.or social functioning that is significantly below the norm and identified after birth
  2. TASH
    an organization that advocates people with significant disabilities and support needs are most at risk for being excluded in the society
  3. Profound Disabilities
    affects cognition, communication, social skills development, motor-mobility, and activities of daily living
  4. Multiple Disabilities
    concomitant impairments, the combination of which causes severe educational needs that cannot be accomodated in sped programs solely for one of the impairments
  5. Deaf-Blindness
    concomitant hearing and visual impairments that causes severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in sped programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness
  6. Severe Disabilities can include students under:
    ID, OHI, MD, Autism, TBI, DB
  7. Characteristics of students with severe disabilities
    • Slow acquisition rates for learning new skills
    • Poor generalization and maintenance of newly learned skills
    • Limited communication skills
    • Impaired physical and motor development
    • Deficits in self-help skills
    • Infrequent constructive behavior and instruction
    • Stereotypic and challenging behavior
  8. Generalization
    performance of skill in settings or under conditions defferent from those in which the skill was learned intially
  9. Maintenance
    continued use of skill after instruction has been terminated
  10. The cause of severe intellectual disabilities:
    biological conditions that may occur before birth, during birth, or after birth
  11. The causes of brain disorders
    • brain dysgenesis
    • brain damage
  12. Brain dysgenesis
    abnormal brain development
  13. Brain damage
    caused by influences that alter the structure or function of the brain that had been developing normally up to that point
  14. Traumatic Brain Injury
    acquired injury to the brain caused by external force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment or bothe that adversely affects a child's educational performances
  15. Open Head Injury
    result of penetration of the skull, such as that caused by a bullet or a forceful blow to the head with a hard or sharp object
  16. Closed Head Injury
    head hits a stationary object with such force that the brain slams against the inside of the cranium
  17. Concussion
    a mild brain injury, is a brief loss of consciousness
  18. Contusions
    accompany a moderate brain injury and consists of bruising, swelling, and bleeding
  19. Hematoma
    occurs when blood vessels in the brain rupture
  20. Coma
    a severe head trauma
  21. Anoxia
    loss of oxygen to the brain for a period of time during a severe brain injury
  22. Three categories of impairments from brain injuries:
    • Physical and sensory changes
    • Cognitive impairment
    • Social, behavioral, and emotional problems
  23. Functional Skills
    activities of daily living skills needed now and in the future
  24. Curriculum for students with severe and multiple disabilties:
    • Functional skills
    • Age-appropriate skills
    • Communication skills
    • Literacy
    • Recreation and leisure skills
    • Making choices
    • Access to gen ed curriculum
  25. Components of an Instructional Program:
    • Precisely assess the student's current level of performance (determine what needs to be taught)
    • Clearly define the skill to be taught
    • Break down skills into smaller steps
    • Determine how the learner can actively participate
    • Provide a clear response prompt or cue to the child
    • Gradually withdraw response prompt
    • Provide immediate feedback
    • Use strategies that promote maintenance and generalization
    • Directly and frequently assess the student's performance
  26. Naturalistic teaching
    "teachable moment" when a student demonstrates an interest in something, great time to teach them a related skill
  27. Strategies of naturalistic teaching
    • Mand
    • Mand-prompt
    • Model
  28. MAnd
    verbal instruction that cues students to perform a behavior that they may know how to perform but do not do
  29. Mand-prompt
    teacher mands, as stated above, but also prompts a student
  30. Model
    student can perform a behavior but hesitates to do so, teacher may dispense with mands and just model the correct behavior for students to imitate
  31. Partial Participation
    individuals with severe disabilities can be taught to perform selected components or an adapted version of the task
  32. Positive Behavior Support
    Use of functional assessment methodologies to support student's placement and guide the development of positive behavior support plans
  33. Functional Assessment
    determines environmental variable that cue and maintain undersirable behavior
  34. Benefits of the neighborhood school and inclusion:
    • integrated schools are more meaningful instructional environments
    • parents and families have greater access to school activities
    • students with severe disabilities are more likely to develop social relationships with students without disabilities if they are included at least aprt of the time in the regular classroom