Botany 1203 Final Exam.txt

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Botany 1203 Final Exam.txt
2012-12-13 12:25:31

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    • Biome
    • a large, relatively distinct terrestrial region characterized by a similar climate, soil, plants, and animals.
  1. Key Factors in Species Distribution
    • temperature
    • precipitation (rain shadow)
    • altitude
    • soil
    • fire
  2. Tundra
    • High latitudes/mtns
    • little precipitation
    • low water availability (locked in ice)
    • trees absent
    • permafrost
  3. Permafrost
    an ever present layer of ice in the ground
  4. Boreal Forest
    • Also known as the taiga
    • Near 50-60% N of equator
    • Very shory, cold days in winter
    • May have permafrost
    • Annual herbs absent (for the most part)
    • Mosses and lichens common.
  5. Temperate Rainforest
    • Mild winters with high rainfall and fog.
    • Occur near ocean
    • Less seasonality than deciduous forest
    • evergreen trees common
    • lower species diversity than rainforest
  6. Temperate Deciduous Forest
    • Moderate precipitation, evenly distrubuted.
    • 75-250 cm rain/yr
    • warm summers
    • cold, freezing winters
    • temperature driven annual growth cycle.
    • -deciduous
    • -spring ephemerals
    • -summer herbaceous plants
  7. Temperate Grassland
    • Rain fall 30-85 cm/yr
    • hot, wet summers
    • cold winters
    • praries (N Am) or steppes (Asia)
    • Perennial grasses dominate
    • fire important
    • Shortgrass prarie: near drought conditions, short grasses.
    • TallGrass Prarie: moister, tall grasses.
  8. Prairie
    North American grasslands
  9. Steppe
    Asian grassland (and I think S. Am)
  10. Chaparral
    • 30-40 degrees N and S of equator
    • Mild winters
    • winter rain, summer grought
    • evergreen shrubs
    • fire helps ecosystem
  11. Desert
    • occur in rain shadows
    • low rainfall (less than 25 cm)
    • soils are shallow, little organic matter
    • hot and cold
    • Plant Adaptations:
    • -annual life history
    • -succulent life form
    • -CAM photosynthesis
    • -Deep taproot
    • -Leaf Adaptations (small leaves, trichomes, thick cuticles)
  12. Savanna
    • High temps.
    • Seasonal drought
    • rainfall 90-150 cm/yr
    • Deciduous trees are common. Shed leaves in dry season.
    • Grazing and fire important.
    • Shrubs and trees sparsely distributed
    • Grassland matrix:
    • -perennials abundant
    • -annuals rare
  13. Tropical Rainforest
    • Relatively constant temperature
    • high rainfall
    • trees dominate
    • most plants are evergreen
    • high species diversity
    • intense competition for light

    Ex. Costa Rica
  14. Liana
    use vertical support to get to canopy for light
  15. Epiphyte
    a plant that grows on another plant
  16. Rain Shadow
    An arid area created by a mountain which contains the precipitation on one side of the mountain, leaving the other arid.
    • Is Algae a prokaryote or eukaryote?
    • Prokaryote,
    • •No nuclear envelopes
    • •No membrane-bound organelles, such as plastids, mitochondria, dictyosomes, endoplasmic reticulum
  17. How does algae reproduce?
    • •Fission/asexual - No mitosis, DNA strand duplicates and is distributed to new cells.
    • vNo sexual reproduction
    • •Genetic recombination facilitated by pili or by close contact of cells.
  18. Name some distinctions betwen cyanobacteria and traditional bacteria
    • Cyanobacteria have chlorophyll a and oxygen is produced from photosynthesis.
    • Contain phycobilins (blue and red pigments).
    • Can both fix nitrogen and produce oxygen.
  19. What are some characterists of blue-green bacteria? (Cyanobacteria)
    • Can live in extreme heat
    • First photosynthic organism

    • •Symbiotic with other organisms
    • –Amoebae, sea anemones, fungi (producing lichens), cycads
    • -mutialism.
    • cycads have amoebae
    • -can be found in fresh water as well
  20. Cyanobacteria is the main principal photosynthic organism in plankton.
  21. Describe cyanobacteria form, metabloism and reproduction
    • •Often in chains, or colonies held together by gelatinous sheaths
    • •Cells blue-green in color in about half of the approximately 1,500 species.
    • •Produce nitrogenous food reserve - Cyanophycin
    • •Flagella unknown

    • •New cells by fission, or by fragmentation of colonies or filaments.
    • •In Nostoc and Anabaena, fragmentation often occurs at heterocyst.
    • –Heterocyst - Large colorless, nitrogen-fixing cell
    • –Also produce akinetes
    • oAkinetes - Thick-walled cells that resist adverse conditions
  22. Describe history of cyanobacteria
    chloroplasts originated as cyanobacteria or prochlorobacteria living within other cells

    •Fossils of cyanobacteria, 3.5 billion years old, found in Australia.

    •3 billion years ago, cyanobacteria produced oxygen as by-product of photosynthesis.

    •Oxygen accumulated in atmosphere, becoming substantial 1 billion years ago.

    •As oxygen accumulated, other photosynthetic organisms appeared and forms of aerobic respiration developed.

    •In last half billion years enough ozone for UV shield and for photosynthetic organisms to survive on land.
  23. What are human relevance of cyanobacteria?
    Cyanobacteria=plankton, in which other animals eat= food systems!

    -algal blooms-poisonus to livestock


    swimmers itch

    nitrogen fixation
  24. What causes Algal blooms?

    What toxins do they produce?
    High amounts of phorphorous and nitrogen

    • Microcystis produces
    • the toxin microcystin. Aphanizomenon can produce
    • multiple toxins including cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin andanatoxin.
  25. What kingdom are Algae placed in?
    Kingdom Protista,

    Protista is diverse and heterogeneous
  26. What phylum does Green Algae belong?
    Phylum Chlorophyta
  27. What are characteristics of Green Algae?
    •Unicellular, filamentous, platelike colonies, netlike tubes, hollow spheres, lettuce-like leaves

    • •Greatest variety in freshwater lakes, ponds, and streams
    • –Some on tree bark, in animal fur, in snowbanks, in flatworms or sponges, on rocks, in lichen “partnerships.”
    • •Have chlorophylls a and b
    • •Store food as starch
    • •Most have a single nucleus per cell.
    • •Most reproduce both sexually and asexually.
  28. What is Chlamydomona?
    • Green Algae
    • •Common inhabitant of freshwater pools
    • •Unicellular (acellular?)Pair of whip-like flagella on one end pull cell through water-(helps this plant move)
    • Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

    • •Two or more vacuoles at base of flagella
    • –Regulate water content of cell and remove waste
    • •Single, cup-shaped chloroplast with one or two pyrenoids inside
    •      –Pyrenoids - Proteinaceous structures associated with synthesis of starch
    • •Red eyespot near base of flagella
    •       –Allows alga to swim toward light
  29. Describe Chlamydomona's asexual reproduction.
    Haploid is the basal state

    • –Nucleus divides by mitosis, and cell contents become two daughter cells within cellulose wall.
    • Each develop flagella and swim away.

    •  No change in chromosome number; all cells remain haploid.
    • -budding, spliting
  30. Describe Chlamydomona's sexual reproduction.
    Gametes fuse to form a diploid zygote. becomes zygospore, undergoes meiosis internally and split off haploid cells

    -Sooo only diploid for a very short amount of time.
  31. What is Ulotrix? and name characteristics
    -Green Algae,

    • •Filamentous with holdfast cell at one end
    • •Chloroplast - Wide, curved, somewhat flattened, with one to several pyrenoids.

    Reproduces asexually and sexually.
  32. What is Sprirogyra? Name Characteristics
    Green algae

    • •Filaments of cylindrical cells
    • •Chloroplast ribbon-shaped and spirally wrapped around vacuole, with pyrenoids at regular intervals.
  33. Describe reproduction of spirogyra.
    Asexual- breaks off and creates a new holdfast cell.

    • Sexual- By Conjugation
    • –Papillae fuse and form conjugation tubes.
    • –Protoplasts fuse, forming zygote that develops thick wall.
    • –Eventually zygote undergoes meiosis.
  34. What is Oedogonium? Name characteristics
    Green algae- with holdfast

    •Large netlike chloroplast with pyrenoids at intersections of net

    Asexual-fragmentation breaks apart grows new filamentous
  35. What is Chorella?  What is Desmid?
    Chorella- used for food source, that can be grown in culture. -only asexually

    • Desmids= important part of plankton
    • -reproduce by conjugation.
  36. What is hydrodicotyon?
    Green Algae, hexagonal meshes.

    • -
    • –Asexual reproduction, as well as isogamous sexual reproduction
    • –Isogamous = two flagellated gametes
  37. What is Volvox?
    • - Colonial green algae held together in a secretion of gelatinous material, resembling hollow ball

    • –Reproduction asexual or sexual
    • oSmaller daughter colonies formed inside parent colony
  38. What is Ulva?  Explain characteristics.
    • (sea lettuce) - Multicellular seaweed with flattened green blades and basal holdfast to anchor blades to rocks
    • –Haploid and diploid blades

    • oDiploid blades produce spores that develop into haploid blades.
    • oHaploid blades bear gametangia that form gametes. Gametes fuse to form zygotes that grow into diploid blades

    Exhibit isomorphism - Haploid and diploid blades indistinguishable
  39. What phylum does yellow-green, goldent-brown, diatoms, and brown algae belong?
    Phylum Chromophyta
  40. What is Vaucheria?
    Yellow-brown algae

    • –Oogamous, coenocytic, filamentous species
    • oAplanospores formed during asexual reproduction.Sexual reproduction rare
    • -Two flagella of motile cells are oriented in opposite directions
  41. Where would you normall find golden-brown algae?
    • •Most occur in the plankton of fresh water.
    • –Motile cells have two flagella of unequal length inserted at right angles to each other.
    • oPhotoreceptor on short flagellum.
  42. What are Diatoms? name characteristics of some.
    • •Unicellular
    • •Fresh and salt water, particularly abundant in cold marine habitats
    • •Also, dominate algal flora on damp cliffs, tree bark or buildings

    • •Look like ornate, glass boxes with lids
    • –As much as 95% of wall is silica.
    • •Chlorophylls a and c and fucoxanthin
    • •Food reserves - Oil, fats or laminarin
  43. Describe Asexual reproduction of Diatoms.
    • •Asexual reproduction results in half of cells becoming progressively smaller.
    • •Original cell size restored through sexual reproduction.
  44. What are characteristics of Brown algae?
    • •Relatively large; none unicellular or colonial
    • •Most marine; majority in cold, shallow water
    • •Many have a thallus differentiated into a holdfast, a stipe, and blades.
    • –Blades may have gas-filled bladders.
    • •Chlorophylls a and c, fucoxanthin
    • •Food reserve = laminarinAlgin Algin in cell walls
  45. What is sargassum?

    How does it reproduce?
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyceae)
    • •Sargassum - Floating brown seaweed
    • •Asexual reproduction by fragmentation or autospores.
  46. What is Fucus?
    Brown algae, common rockweed

    • –Sexual reproduction:
    • oReceptacles at tips of branches contain spherical chambers called conceptacles with gametangia inside.
    •  Oogonium produces 8 eggs.
    •  Antheridium  produces 64 sperm.
    • oEggs and sperm released into water.
  47. What phylum is Red algae? Name characteristics of red algae.
    Phylum Rhodophyta.

    •In warmer and deeper waters than brown algaeMost are filamentous with filaments so tightly packed they appear to have flattened blades or branched segments

    • •Relatively complex life cycle involving three types of thallus structures
    • •Nonmotile reproductive cells
  48. Kelp forests consist of what kind of algae?
    Brown algae
  49. what are some cool things about red algae?
    • •Colors mostly due to phycobilins.
    • –Similar to those of cyanobacteria
    • oRed algae may have been derived from cyanobacteria.
    • •Chlorophylls a, and sometimes d
    • •Food reserve - Floridean starch
    • •Numbers of species produce agar.
  50. What phylum is the dinoflagellates? Name characteristics.

    • vThe Dinoflagellates
    • •Red tides - Sudden multiplication of dinoflagellates
    • –Some produce neurotoxins that accumulate in shell fish.
    • •Cellulose “armor plates” inside cell membrane
    • •Two flagella in intersecting grooves
    • –One trails behind cell - Acts as rudder
  51. what are some cool things about dinoflaggelates?
    • •Most have disc-shaped chloroplasts.
    • –Contain xanthophyll pigments
    • –Chlorophylls a and c
    • •About 45% nonphotosynthetic
    • •Chromosomes remain condensed and visible throughout life of cell.
    • •Starch food reserve
    • Many have tiny projectiles that fire when irritated
  52. What are human ecological relevance to algae?
    • •Most have disc-shaped chloroplasts.
    • –Contain xanthophyll pigments
    • –Chlorophylls a and c
    • •About 45% nonphotosynthetic
    • •Chromosomes remain condensed and visible throughout life of cell.
    • •Starch food reserve
    • Many have tiny projectiles that fire when irritated
  53. What is Algin?
    • •Produced by giant kelps and other brown algae
    • –Ice cream, salad dressing
    • –Latex paint, textiles, ceramics
    • –Regulates water behavior
    • oControls development of ice crystals
    • oRegulates penetration of water
    • oStabilizes suspensions
  54. Minerals and food
    • •Iodine from kelp
    • •Red algae
    • –Food - Dulse, nori
    • –Carrageenan - Thickening agent
    • vAgar
    • •Produced by red alga Gelidium
    • –Solidifier of nutrient culture media
    • –Retains moistness in bakery products
    • –Base for cosmetics
    • Charophytes
    • Closest relative to the plants from the green algae family
  55. 5 Differences Between Plants and Algae
    • apical meristems
    • spores produced in multicellular sporangia
    • multicellular gametangia
    • produce a multicellular depenent embryo
    • allteration of generations
  56. Sporopollenin
    A thick coating on seeds that keep them safer, this is not present in charophytes
  57. Antheridia and Archegonia
    The gametangia that can be formed for the plants

    • Archegonia is female organ
    • Antheridia is the male organ
  58. Alternation of Generations 
    Lifecycle where a multicellular sporophyte and a multicellular gametophyte take turns producing each other gametophyte always being haploid and the the sporophyte always being diploid
  59. 5 Evolutionary Changes
    • Cuticle Formation- protective coating to keep leaves from drying out 
    • Protection of the Embryo by the mother plant or some other method
    • Vascular Tissue once you get into the seedless vascular plants
    • Seeds forming to help with fertilization and spreading the species
    • Flowers to attract pollinators 
  60. Bryophytes
    Small, fake leaved plants with no vascular tissue that often grow in temperate or tropical forests and near wetlands and streams
    • What does a cross section of a monocot stem look like? A dicot?
    • the vascular bundles are scattered in monocot
    • in a ring in dicot
  61. What does the pollen of a monocot look like? A dicot?
    • Monocot = 1 pore or furrow
    • Dicot = 3 pores or furrows
  62. What makes gymnosperms above mosses and ferns?
    The presence of xylem and phloem in the sporophyte generation
  63. What do the leaves of a typical gymnosperm look like?
    needle-like leaves
  64. what is the main way a gymnosperm reproduces?
    • via cones but....
    • some produce berry-like structures with seeds inside
  65. True or false: all gymnosperms are woody
  66. what makes the wood of a gymnosperm unique from an angiosperm woody plant?
    • they only have tracheids, which are found in the xylem
    • conducts water
  67. Cycads: describe the tree appearance, cone size and location
    • palm like appearance
    • giant cones
    • tropical
  68. How many species are found in the Ginkgophyta phylum?
    One: Ginkgo biloba
  69. Conifers: Describe the seed production, and in which biome they are found
    • cone bearing
    • found in Taiga of Northern hemisphere
  70. Name the two classifications of angiosperms
    • Monocot
    • Eudicot
  71. Which type of plant dominates Earth's flora?
  72. What are the typical forms angiosperms take?
    • herbs
    • shrubs
    • trees
    • flowers
  73. What are the two key traits of the angiosperms?
    • Vessel elements
    • double fertilization
  74. Why have angiosperms been so successful at pollination over the past 140 million years?
    • co-evolution with insect pollinators
    • co-evolution with animal dispersers
  75. Why are angiosperms deciduous? (lose leaves)
    to beat drought
  76. Name the 4 main whorls of a pedagogical flower
    • Sepals
    • Petals
    • Carpels
    • Stamens
  77. Name the two male elements of a flower, and what the entire male portion is called
    • anther
    • filament
    • The male part is called the stamen
  78. Name the 3 parts of the female section of the flower, and what the entire female portion is called
    • stigma
    • style
    • ovary
    • The entire female portion is called the carpel
  79. Which 2 elements make up the corolla?
    the petals and sepals
  80. What is the difference between complete and incomplete flowers?
    • complete have all 4 whorls
    • incomplete lack one or more whorls
  81. What is a perfect flower?
    has male and female organs
  82. What is an imperfect flower? Give one example
    • staminate or carpellated flowers
    • Corn = monoecious has both stamen and carpels on the same plant
  83. Why does a monocot only have one pore on the pollen coat? Why does a eudicot have 3?
    • monocot = only one sperm tube enters ovary
    • eudicot = three sperm tubes enter ovary
  84. What is the dominant generation in the angiosperms?
  85. Draw and label the embryo sack of an angiosperm
  86. legume or pod
  87. follicle (milkweed)
  88. capsule (poppy)
    • samara (maple)
    • also the scary chick from "The Ring"
  89. achene (sunflower seed)
  90. grain
  91. nut
  92. berry
    • hesperidium
    • hesper = Greek warrior with shield (the covering)
    • pepo (pumpkin, squash)
    • has a rhind
    • pome
    • accessory fruits
    • drupe
    • "stone fruit"
    • cherry also
  93. aggregate (raspberry)
  94. multiple fruit
  95. What is the definition of a fruit?
    the ripened ovary of a flower
  96. Name the taxonomic hierarchy in order, from greatest to most specific
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  97. What is the switching between sporophytic and gametophytic phases of the life cycle called?
    alternation of generations
  98. Where does unlimited growth occur in plants?
    meristems (roots and shoots)
  99. Which cell type is this?
    • epidermis (onion)
    • living at maturity
  100. Which cell type is this?
    • parenchyma
    • living at maturity
    • thin primary cell walls
  101. Which cell type is this?
    • collenchyma
    • thickened
    • strands for support
    • CELERY
  102. which cell type is this?
    • sclerenchyma (hard)
    • "stone cells"
    • AGAVE
  103. Where are carbohydrates stored in plants?
  104. What is the word for "plant death?"
    Hint: means old man in latin
  105. What is the purpose of auxin?
    • growth in root and shoot
    • cell elongation
  106. What is the purpose of cytokinins?
    • cell division
    • releases buds from dormancy
    • inhibits senescence
  107. What is the purpose of gibberellin?
    • cell division AND elongation
    • stimulate small plants to elongate
  108. What is the purpose of ethylene?
    fruit ripening
    • author "malachiwhitford"
    • tags "palmer botany "
    • description "fungi quiz"
    • fileName "botany quiz fungi.txt"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • author "malachiwhitford"
    • tags "palmer botany "
    • description "fungi quiz"
    • fileName "botany quiz fungi.txt"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • crustase
  109. foliose
  110. fruticose
  111. lichens
  112. deuteromycetes-fungi imperfecti.........penicillen
  113. ascomycota, morchella(morels)
  114. ascomycota, peziza
  115. smut, ustomycetes
  116. birds nest fungus
  117. ascomycota , cup fungus
  118. basidiomycota, hymenomycete, gill mushroom
  119. shelf fungus, hymenomycete, basidiomycota
  120. green spored parasol, mildly poisonous
  121. gasteromycete, puff balls. basidiomycota
  122. earth star