Botany 1203 Final Exam2.txt

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Botany 1203 Final Exam2.txt
2012-12-13 12:34:54

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    • Sequence of classification from kingdom down to species level
    • Kingdom, Phyllum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  1. Binomial system of nomenclature
    • Classification- system of naming is called binomial nomenclature
    • *binomial name: species
  2. Proper way to write a scientific name
    • Canabis sativa
    • *C: genes
    • *s: species
  3. Common names for 5 phylla of kingdom protista and important uses or effects each has for humans
    • 1. CHLOROPHYTA: Green Algae
    • - chlorophyll a and b
    • - ancestor of true plants
    • - unicellular
    • - multicellular-sea lettuce
    • - Fresh or salt water

    • 2. CHROMOPHYTA: Yellow Green
    • -Diatoms:
    • -Single celled
    • -Photosynthetic
    • -Silica cell wall
    • -chlorophyll a and c
    • -Diatomaceus Earth
    • -Water Filteration
    • -Brown Algae
    • -Phaeophycae
    • -Chlorophyll a and c
    • -Algin- gelatinous starch
    • -Alginates used in food and other products
    • (thinkeners)

    • 3. DINOPHYTA: Dinoflagellates
    • -single cells-with a whip like flagella
    • -photosythetic- chlorophylls a and c
    • -causing Red Tides and ciguatera

    • 4. RHODOPHYTA: Red Algae
    • -Macro Algae
    • -Photosynthetic- chlorophyll a and d
    • -Agar Food Reserve - biomedical research
  4. Which protista phyla is most closely related to land plants?
  5. Basic structure of a macro-algae
  6. Alternation of generations
    • Sporophyte-diploid phase->
    • Meiosis->
    • Spores-> haploid phase->
    • Gametophyte->
    • Gametes-male and female->
    • fuse {fertilization}- zygote->
    • diploid-> =
  7. Why bryophytes are in the kingdom plantae?
    • Bryophytes "mosses" are in the primitive group
    • -no vascular system
  8. What phyla do liverworts and mosses belong?
    • Bryophytes
    • Liverwort- hepaticaphyta
    • Bryophyta- mosses
  9. Part of a moss that is a gametophyte and part that is a sporophyte
    • Gametophyte- main body
    • Sporophyte- attached to the gametophyte
  10. Lower vascular plants: know Some members of the Psilotophyta, Lycophyta, and Equisetophyta
    • Psilotophyla- Psilotum -Moa (wiskbroom)
    • Lycopodiophyla- Lycopodia -waewaeiole (club moss)
    • selaginella- spike moss
    • Equisetophyla- Horsetail ferns/ scouring rushes
  11. How is a seed more advantageous than spores for life on dry land?
    seeds can go dormant
  12. Familiar with members in the 4 phyla discussed in lecture?
    • 1. Pinophyta: Redwoods
    • 2. Ginkophyta: Maiden hair tree
    • 3. Cycodophyta: cycads
    • 4: Gnetophyta: Mormon tea (Ephredra)
  13. Economic importance of Gymnosperms
    • Pinophyta- turpintine- paint thinner, Rosin- wax, wood, paper,
    • Pine nuts, pesto, violines onther in struments
    • Amber Fossilized Resin
  14. Features that Gymnosperms and Angiosperms have in common.
    seed bearing
  15. Difference between pollination and fertilization
    Pollination: when pollen reaches stigma

    Fertilization: when sperm fuses with eggs
  16. Why flowers produce nectar.
    flower provides an incentive "nectar" for pollinator
  17. Definition of a fruit; superior vs inferior ovarles
    Superior: when ovary is above petals and sepals

    Inferior: Below sepals and petals
  18. 5 main times of fleshy fruits as discussed in class
    • Berry- Banana
    • Aggragate- Raspberries
    • Pome- Apple
    • Multiple- Pineapple
    • Specialized Berries- Pepo- gourds, watermelon, pumpkins
    • -Hesperidium-citrus
  19. 3 types of dry dehiscent fruits and 3 types of dry indehiscent fruits
    • 3 Types of dry DEHISCENT fruits: splits at maturity
    • - Legume-*splits on 2 sides* Pea Pod, Koa, Albizia
    • -Follicle- *splits along one side* milkweed, african tulip, achiote
    • -Capsule- *splits along 2 or more sides* Autograph tree, Mahgbany

    • 3 types of dry INDEHISCENT fruits:
    • -Achene- sunflower seed
    • -Carypis- grass fruit exp. rice, wheat, corn
    • -Nut- Acorns, Filberts, chestnuts, Hard Periderm covering seed
  20. Definitions of ecology, population, community and ecosystem
    1. Ecology: the interaction of plans and animals(Biotic) with each other with their physical environment (Abiotic)

    2. Population: a group of individuals of the species level same species in a given area ex: all sliver swords on Mauna Loa

    • 3. Community: ALL species in a given area
    • -whole biotic community
    • -plant community
    • -birds community
    • -insects community

    4. Ecosystem: system of interacting organisms with their physical environment
  21. Succession of communities, primary succession and secondary succession
    • Succession of communities:
    • -Colonization of an area by the biotic community after disturbance or new land formation

    • Primary:
    • - colonization where no life existed before
    • -volcano- lava flows
    • -landslides- exposing new rock (substrate)
    • -land uncovered by glacial retreat

    • Secondary:
    • -Re-colonization after disturbance
    • -Fires, storms, tsunamis, human disturbance
  22. What is mycology?
    study of fungi
  23. Features of the Kingdom FUNGI- what mushroom cell walls are made of
    • -Cell walls made of CHITIN
    • -body or thallus is formed by hyphae- tubular threads may or may not have cell walls
    • -mass of hyphae is a mycelium typically lives in soil, rotting veggies
    • -Decomposition- major ecological role
    • -Reproduction separate haploid and diploid phases
  24. Important economic members of the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidomycota, and Deuteromycota
    Zygomycota- bread molds, no cell walls, (zygote) Diploid is short lived

    Ascomycota- sac fungi- yeasts- Brewing and baking, delicacy mushrooms- truffles/ morrel, mildew, ergot

    Basidomycota- club fungi, mushrooms edible, toadstools- poisonous, puffballs, earth stars, shelf or ear fungus (pepeiao), smut

    Deutereomycota- fungi imperfect- life cycle not known, Penicillium- antibiotic, blue cheese
    • Tundra?
    • Also called Arctic Tundra. Cold, boggy plains existing in the extreme northern latitudes. Long, harsh winters and short summers. Layer of permafrost, permanently frozen ground.
  25. Taiga?
    Dominated by conifers, a huge evergreen forest biome that stretches across northern portions of north america and eurasia. Worlds largest biome, with wolves, bears, moose, and caribou. AKA Boreal Forest.
  26. Temperate Rain Forest?
    Coniferous temperate rain forest is one of the richest wood produces in the world and supplies us with lumber. Also rich in epiphytic vegetation, such as mosses, lichens, and ferns.
  27. Temperate Deciduous Forest?
    Summers are hot, winters are cold. Broadleaf evergreens, saplings, and shrubs. Hardwoods, such as oak, hickory, etc.
  28. Chaparral?
    Thicket of evergreen shrubs and small trees. Mediterranean climates, with soils that are thin and relatively infertile. Native plants are adapted to the fires since they are so frequent.
  29. Desert?
    Deserts are dry areas in temperate (cold deserts) and subtropical or tropical regions (warm deserts). Desert soils are low in organic material but often high in mineral content, such as salts sodium chloride and calcium carbonate.
  30. Tropical Rain Forest
    When the temperature is warm throughout the year and precipitation occurs almost daily. Found near the equator in Central and South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Most trees are evergreen flowering plants. Usually not dense at ground level, except near riverbanks.
  31. Ecosystem
    The interacting system that encompasses a community and it's nonliving physical environment.

    Living and Nonliving things
    • The colonisation of barren ground by plants and animals and the changes which follow is called an...?
    • ecological succession
  32. What are the two kinds of succession?
    • Primary succession
    • Secondary succession
  33. What are the sequence of events in primary succession?
    Land that has not previously been inhabited (no soil) → lichen (pioneer species) → mosses → small flowering annual plants → grasses → shrubs → soft wood trees (pines and community → hardwood trees (oak) and community
  34. The time taken from the colonisation of the intial pioneer species to climax community can be...?
    Many centuries
  35. When does secondary succession occur?
    When the soil already exists but plants have been destroyed eg after a fire
  36. What do the pioneer species in secondary succession tend to be?
    Annual plants
  37. Does secondary succession take longer or shorter than primary succession?
    Shorter - around one hundred years
  38. Succession occurs because...?
    the habitat is altered by the plants growing there
  39. What is a climax community?
    The stable community in the ecosystem where the dominant species of plants are well adapted to environmental conditions and in which no further succession takes place
  40. Climax communities tend to have...?
    • Complex food webs
    • High species diversity
    • High biomass
  41. During succession the same sequence of events always takes place and the changes which take place cannot be reversed. This means succession is...?
    • •Late in the ______, some plants developed secondary
    • growth: ___________________.
    • Devonian (~400 mya)
  42. thickened woody stems of xylem
  43. Alternation of generations differs between nonvascular plants, vascular non-seed plants, and seed plants
  44. The evolution of seeds provided a means for plants to:
    Tolerate severe ecological conditions that could not support an independent gametophyte stage.

    Withstand variation in climate that included unfavorable periods of drought or cold.

    Develop mechanisms for both animal and wind dispersal into new habitats
  45. Seed plants dominate on land during the___a___ era

    Gymnosperms were dominant during the ___a___, until about ______.

    Angiosperms also appear later in the ___a___
    era during the ________ period (oldest fossils from _____)

    Angiosperm radiation was explosive; they became dominant in _____ in the_______ era.
    • a)Mesozoic
    • 65 Mya
    • Cretaceous/140 mya
    • ~60 million yrs/Cenozoic [remain dominant plants]
  46. Factors that contributed to the success of seed plants include:
    • -reduction of the size of thegametophyte
    • -seeds
    • -Pollen
  47. heterosporous
    produce 2 types of spores (seed plants do this)

    One becomes female gametophyte, one becomes male gametophyte.
  48. Megagametophyte
    • The female gametophyte that arises from a megaspore of a heterosporous plant.
  49. Megasporangium
    • A plant structure in which megaspores are formed, such as those of the female cones of pines
  50. Pollination
    when a pollen grain lands near a female gametophyte and a pollen tube is produced that digests its way through the sporophyte tissue to the megagametophyte.
  51. Gymnosperms
    (“naked seeds”): ovules and seeds are not protected by ovary or fruit tissue

    • •4 major groups of living Gymnosperms
    • §Cycads (Cycadophyta): 300 spp,
    • §Ginkgos (Ginkgophyta): only 1 species survives
    • §Gnetophytes (Gnetophyta): 90 spp.
    • §Conifers (Coniferophyta): 700 spp.,
  52. Cycads (Cycadophyta):
    300 spp, appear palm-like, but w/o flowers; mostly tropical.
  53. Ginkgos (Ginkgophyta):
    §Ginkgos (Ginkgophyta): only 1 species survives, Ginkgo biloba.
  54. Gnetophytes (Gnetophyta):
    90 spp., restricted to deserts and the tropics.
  55. Conifers (Coniferophyta):
    700 spp., the cone bearers, includes the pines, firs, junipers; aredominant trees in northern climates; include oldest living organisms on earth(e.g. bristlecone pines that germinated ~4,800 ya).
  56. Cone vs Strobilus
    A cone is a modified stem, bearing a tight cluster of scales (reduced branches), specialized for reproduction. Megaspores are produced here.

    • Strobilus:
    • cone-like structure; scales are modified leaves. Microspores are produced here.
  57. The oldest angiosperm fossils are_______, ______ old. Radiation was explosive during the Tertiary. Over _______ species exist today.
    Jurassic, 150 million years

    • Tertiary
    • 250,000
  58. 5 Synapomorphies in Angiosperms include:
    Double fertilization with a diploid zygote and triploid endosperm.

    Endosperm—nutritive tissue in seeds

    Ovules and seeds enclosed in a carpel

    Flower develops as a reproductive structure

    Fruits (mature ovary) protects ovule and aid in dispersal.

    • Xylem with vessel elements and fibers, phloem with
    • companion cells
  59. Double fertilization
    -Microgametophyte has two male gametes. Nucleus of one combines with egg.

    -The other nucleus combines with two haploid nuclei of female gametophyte to form a triploid nucleus—becomes the endosperm.

    -Endosperm nourishes developing sporophyte.
  60. Carpels
    •Enclose ovules and seeds; that’s why Angiosperms mean “enclosed seed”:

    -provide protection, and may interact with pollen to prevent self-pollination.
  61. Anther, Carpel, Filament, Ovary, Ovule, Petal, Receptacle, Sepal, Stamen, Stigma, Style
  62. Stamens bear______: consist of ____and_____.

    Carpels bear______. One or more carpels form the_____ = _______.

    Petals and sepals are modified leaves. Often play a role in attracting pollinators.
    microsporangia/filament and anther

    megasporangia/ pistil/stigma, style, ovary
  63. basal clades
    •have large and variable # of sepals and petals.
  64. Monoecious plant:
    “one-housed”; male and female flowers occur on the same plant.
  65. •Dioecious plant:
    “two-housed”;male and female flowers on different plants. Inflorescence: grouping offlowers.
  66. Angiosperms are _____sporous
  67. •_______ fruits develop from one carpel (e.g. cherry).

    •_______ fruits develop from several carpels (e.g. rasberry).

    •_______ fruits form from a cluster of flowers (e.g. pineapple).

    •_______ fruits develop from parts other than carpels (strawberry, apple).
  68. Most Angiosperms are in two clades:
    Monocots and Eudicots
  69. Monocots:
    one cotyledon (generally have leaves with parallel veins ); mostly wind pollinated. Monocots include grasses, cattails, lilies, orchids, and palms
  70. Eudicots:
    two cotyledons (usually have leaves with netlike veins); mostly animal pollinated (e.g. most flowering plant species). Eudicots include most of the seed plants, including most herbs (nonwoody plants), vines, trees, and shrubs.
  71. Other 4 Angiosperm clades include:
    Amborella trichopoda: the most primitive living angiosperm (found only on New Caledonia, an island in the south pacific).

    “Water lilies”: the most primitive of the widely distributed Angiosperm groups.

    Star anise (Illicium floridanum) and relatives.

    Magnoliids (Magnolias).
    • Nonvascular plants tend to grow tall.
  72. TRUE
    • FALSE
    • FALSE
  73. Nonvascular plants tend to grow low to the ground because they do not have any vascular tissue.
  74. Which of the following is not an example of a nonvascular plant.

    a. mosses
    b. trees
    c. liverworts
    d. hornworts
  75. Do nonvasclar plants have tubelike structures to pass materials from one cell to another?


    They do not have tube like structures.
  76. Nonvascular plants pass material from one cell to another cell.

  77. The thin rootlike structures that anchor moss and absorb water and nutrients from the soil are called _____________.

    A. ribosomes
    B. rib cages
    C. rhizoids
    D. rim tubes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. The fuzzy green part of the moss is called the __________ generation.

    A. gametophyte
    B. gameforme
    C. gameotropic
    D. ganymede
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. The slender stalk with a capsule that holds spores is the __________ generation of the moss.

    A. sophomore
    B. sporophyte
    C. special
    D. sproadic
    B. sporophyte
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. What is the slender stalk like structure that grows from the gametophyte generation of a moss called?

    a. sophomore
    b. sporophyte
    c. special
    d. sproadic
  81. Which of the following IS a plant that typically is the first to grow back in an area after a fire.

    a. mosses
    b. pine trees
    c. daffodils
    d. oak trees
  82. Sphagnum moss that grows inbogs does not decay when it dies.

  83. When sphagnum moss dies, it sinks down into the acidic bog water, sinks to the bottom, and becomes compressed into layers producing _____________.

    A. pert
    B. fossils
    C. peat
    D. wood chips
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. Peat CAN be used as a fuel to heat homes and cook food.

  85. Is a liverwort a nonvascular plant?

  86. The liverwort received its name because it is shaped like the human ___________.

    A. liver
    B. lungs
    C. heart
    D. stomach
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. Moss and liverworts are found growing along the sides of ____ and on ______.

    (Fill in the blanks)
    trees   rocks
  88. What part of the hornwort looks like a horn?

    a. gametophyte
    b. rhizoids
    c. sporophytes
    d. sphagnum
  89. Which of the following is rarely found growing on rocks and trees.

    A. mosses
    B. hornworts
    C. liverworts
    D. sphagnum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. Which of the following prefers to grow in moist soil mixed in with grass plants.

    a. mosses
    b. liverworts
    c. lichens
    d. hornworts
    • Fungi (3)
    • -mushrooms
  91. -molds
  92. -mildews
  93. what is a fungus? (7)

    -mulitcellular (except yeast)

    -absorbtion nutrition

    -cell walls made of chitin

    -storage material: glycogen

    - Lack of organs

    -reproduce by spores
  94. General features of Fungi (4)



    -fruiting body
  95. (fungus) Absorbtion nutrition (3)
    -secretes enzymes outside of fungi

    - break down materials externally, then absorbs fungus
  96. Classification hierachy of fungi
    divisions ends in -mycota
  97. Zygomycota
    bread molds
  98. Ascomycota
    sac fungi
  99. Basidiomycota
    club fungi
  100. Deutermycota
    imperfect fungi
  101. Division Zygomycota (4)
    a) bread molds

    b) no fruiting bofy

    • c) asexual reprodcution
    • *sporangium: spores
    • *sporangiosphore : stalk

    • d) sexual reproduction
    • *zygote (fertilized egg)
    • -inside a zygosporangium
  102. Division Ascomycota (3)
    a) sac or cup fungi

    • b) ascocarp: fruiting body
    • -cup and other shapes
    • c) ascus (plural asci)
    • -sac-like hypha
    • -8 internal ascospores
  103. Division Basidiomycota (3)
    a) club or gill fungi

    • b) basidiocarp: fruiting body
    • * not all look like mushrooms

    c) basidium : club shaped hyphae, 4 external basidiospores
  104. Division Deuteromycota
    a) blue green molds

    b) no sexual reproductive stage

    • C) asexual reporduction
    • *conidia (asexual spores) on conidiospores

    ex) penicilun, aspergills
  105. Negative aspects of fungi (2)
    • a) parasites
    • -living on live organisms
    • *fungi on people and plants

    • b) saprophytes
    • -living on dead organisms
    • *wastes, wood rot
  106. Positive aspects of fungi
    • a) decomposers
    • -breaks down and recycle nutrients in soil
    • *saphrophytes
    • b) mutualists
    • -two organisms living together, benefitting
    • *lichens: fungus gets food, algae get shelter

    • c) fungi as food
    • *yeasts and cheese
    • Vascular plants
    • -vascular tissue
  107. -most succesful land plants
  108. 2 groups of vascular plants

    -seed plants
  109. (groups) seedless
    a) spores

    ex) fern allies and ferns
  110. (groups) Seeds
    ex) pines and flowering plants
  111. Fern Allies (6)
    3 phyla

    • -related to ferns
    • -less common
    • -not all lead to evolution of seed plants
    • -spores
    • -cones (most)
  112. Phyla Lycophyta
    club mosses

    ex) club mosses and spike mosses
  113. Phyla Equisetophyta
    ex) horsetails and scarring rushes
  114. Phyla Psitolophyta
    ex) whisk ferns

    dual branching
  115. Phyla polypodiophyta or pterophyta
  116. 6 characteristics of Polypodiophyta
    • -vascular tissue
    • -spores
    • -cuticle
    • -stomates
    • -true organs
  117. Sporophyte generation of a fern
    • -dominant (what one sees)
    • * larger and more complex
  118. Gametophyte generation of a fern

    -green, photosynthetic

    -sperm needs to swim to egg
  119. what is seen from a fern (sporophyte plant) (8)
    • a) frond
    • b)fiddlehead
    • c)rhizomes
    • d)adventitious roots
    • e)sorus
    • f)sporangium
    • g)annulus
    • h)lip cells
  120. (sporophyte gen. characteristics) Frond (3)
    • -leaf
    • *usually compound

    Pinnae: leaflets

    Rachis: petiole
  121. (sporophyte gen. characteristics) Fiddlehead

    -immature frond

    -it uncurls
  122. (sporophyte gen. characteristics) Rhizome
    -horizontal stem
  123. (sporophyte gen. characteristics) Adventitious roots
    roots that grow on segments or parts on stem
  124. (sporophyte gen. characteristics) Sorus
    -brown spots on leaf

    -group of sporangium

    Insidium: flap. unbrella like protects the sporangium
  125. (sporophyte gen. characteristics) Sporangium
    • -produces sporocyte inside
    • *sporocyte, sperm mother cell
  126. (sporophyte gen. characteristics) Annulus
    thick ring on top of sporangium
  127. (sporophyte gen. characteristics) Lip cells
    -sporangium opening that opens to release spores
  128. What you see in a fern (gametophyte plant)
    a) spores

    b) gametophyte plant

    c) archegonia

    d) antheridia
  129. (gametophyte plant char.) Spores
    -formed after meiosis

    -makes gametophyte plant
  130. (gametophyte plant char.) Gametophyte plant
    -non vascular



    -heart shaped

    -rhizoids (no roots)
  131. (gametophyte plant char.) Archegonia
    contains egg

    -female reproductive
  132. Fern life cycle
    • evolutionary ecology.
    • focuses on adaptations of indivduals within a population
  133. population ecology.
    focuses on demography and simple interactions (within a population or between two populations)
  134. community ecology.
    • focuses on complex species interactions.
    • (eg. indirect effects of food webs and succession)
  135. ecosystem ecology.
    • focus on complex interactions among all species and physical environment
    • -according to pathways of energy, matter, and information.
  136. ecosystem perspective.
    • -traces pathway of matter and energy flow
    • -principles of feedback dynamics to understand regulatory pathways and state in the system
  137. energy flow
    major energy transformations majorly depend on photosynthesis or respiration.
  138. photosynthesis.
    photosynthesis and plant growth turns carbon dioxide and water into organic carbon. stores energy
  139. respiration.
    by plants and animals, organic carbon is broken down into carbon dioxide and water. releases energy that does work and degrades into heat.
  140. energy transformations based on trophic levels.
    • energy flows thru paths in food web, cuz energy is stored and transferred in biomass.
    • -energy is lost at each transfer
  141. ecosystem functions and nutrients.
    • P - phosphorous
    • C - carbon
    • N - nitrogen.
    • -required for growth, maintenance, and reproduction of organisms.
    • -cycling of each element is a major functions of ecosystems.
  142. Phosphorous...
    • occurs in mineral deposits and marine sediments
    • -released thru weathering of rock
    • -assimilate thru plants and recycled thru ecosystem
    • -unassimilated P washed into oceans, where remains dissolved till deposited into sediments
  143. nitrogen. cycle of this summarized by 4 chemical transformations.
    • 1. fixation.
    • 2. ammonification
    • 3. nitrificaton.
    • 4. denitrification.
  144. fixation of nitrogen.
    speclized bacteria reduce atmospheric nitrogen to biologically useful forms with enzyme nitrogenase either ammonium or as nitrate.
  145. ammonificaton.
    organic nitrogen compounds used by plants to construct proteins. proteins eventually metabolized and excess nitrogen is excreted to environment as waste.
  146. nitrification.
    ammonia excreted as waste can further metabolized by microbes in soil. the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, from mitrite to nitrate.
  147. denitrification.
    in soil under anaerobic conditions, microbes convert nitrates back to N gas.
  148. Carbon.
    foundation of all organic molecules. atmospheric C compounds such as carbon dioxide and methane influence global climate.
  149. 3 classes of processes cause carbon to cycle thru ecosystems.
    • 1. photosynthesis/respiration
    • 2. exchange of CO2 between atmosphere and oceans.
    • 3. precipitation of carbonate sediments in oceans
  150. links between N and C cycles.
    • dependent on global distribution of land cover:
    • -photosynthesis requires N.
    • -N limiting in most ecosystems.
    • -fixation and storage of C closely linked to N cycle
  151. as vegetation develops..
    soil nitrogen content tends to increase, organic carbon content increase, fraction of phosphorous available decreases
  152. distrubance increases.. and...
    nutrient losses from ecosystems
  153. effects of excess nutrients.
    • disrupt ecosystem function and structure.
    • -terrestrial ecosystems, lead to reduced species richness, simplified community structure
    • -favor few competitively dominant species
    • -aquatic evironment: can come from human and natural sources.
  154. effects of excess of nutrients in aquatic environments..
    • population booms and death of primary producers = huge detritus inputs. decomposition of dead organisms strips waters of oxgyen.
    • -extreme: water can become hypoxic
    • what are the characteristics of club mosses?
    • •Small, evergreen groundcover
  155. •Creep with a stolon (runner)
  156. •Perennial plants
  157. •Simple leaves, narrow and pointed with no petiole
  158. •Leaves produced in whorls of 4 to 16
  159. •Alternation of generations life history
  160. •Fireworks!!
  161. ground cedar
  162. shining clubmoss
  163. stiff clubmoss
  164. tree clubmoss
  165. wolfs claw clubmoss
    • What is soil?
    • Is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic materials with variable amounts of air and water.
  166. Inorganic Material
    clay, silt, sand, gravel and rocks
  167. Organic
    • Of living and non-living plant and animal material.
    • Living organisms- insects, earthworms and microorganisms
    • non-living- plants and animals waste and residues(remains of dead bodies) in differnt stages of decompoition.
  168. Soil is broken down into six general features
    • 1.texture
    • 2.structure
    • 3.acidity
    • 4.gas content
    • 5.biotic composition
    • 6.water content
    • What is a specie? (organism)
    • All members of all populations of one "type" of organism.
  169. What is a population?
    All members of one specie living together and interbreeding.
  170. What is an ecosystem?
    All population (biotic) plus all abiotic factors.
  171. What is abiotic factor?
    • A nonliving condition or thing
    • example: climate or habitat, that influences or affects an ecosystem.
  172. What is a biotic factor?
    A living thing, as an animal or plant, that influences or affects an ecosystem.
  173. What is a biome?
    • The largest ecosystem defined by large geographical areas and distinguished by rainfall and temperature.
    • example: Tundra, dessert, tropical rainforest
  174. What is a biosphere?
    The areas of the earth that contains life.
  175. What is ecology?
    Study of ecosystems.
  176. What is biomass?
    Mass of the living organism.

    bio=life mass=amt of matter
  177. What is an autotroph?
    "self feeders" either photosynthetic or chemosynthetic.
  178. What is a heterotroph?
    "other feeders" gets energy from other organisms.
  179. What is a primary producer?
    Photosynthetic organisms building biomass using sunlight.
  180. What are primary consumers (herbivores)?
    • Organisms that obtain their food by consuming primary producers.
    • example: most protist, all animals and mistletoe (plant eat other plants)
  181. What are secondary consumers? (primary carnivores)
    Organisms that eat primary consumers.
  182. What are tertiary consumers? (secondary carnivores)
    Organisms that eat secondary consumers.
  183. What are top predators or apex predadors?
    • An animal who, as an adult, has no natural predators in its ecosystem.
    • example: great white shark
  184. What is detritus?
    Material from decomposed, unconsumed plants and dead remains of animals and waste products.
  185. What are detritivores?
    Consumers that get their energy from detritus.
  186. What are decomposers?
    Detritivores that break down dead organisms from all trophic levels.
  187. What is a food chain?
    A linear depiction of energy flow, with each organism feeding on and deriving energy from the preceding organism.
  188. What is a food web?
    A system of food chains in which there are multiple links between species.
  189. What is a trophic level?
    Each feeding level in the food chain.
  190. Trophic levels
    • Tertiary consumer
    • (secondary carnivore)

    • Secondary consumer
    • (carnivore)

    • Primary consumer
    • (herbivore)

    • Primary producer
    • (autotrophs)
  191. What is a phytophankton?
    Plant like plankton. Photosynthetic protests in plankton.
  192. What is plankton?
    Informal group of organims that includes swimming protists, bacteria, viruses, and small animals.
  193. What are zooplankton?
    Aquatic organisms such as worms, copepods, tiny jellyfish, and small larvae of invertebrates and fishes.
  194. What is Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)?
    Production of photoshynthetic organisms. It's equivalent to the carbon fixed during photosynthesis.
  195. What is Net Primary Productivity (NPP)?
    It is gross primary production minus the energy released during cellular respiration of photosynthetic organisms.
  196. What is Secondary Productivity?
    The gain in the biomass of heterothophs and decomposers.
  197. Pyramid of Numbers
    The number of individuals decreases at each trophic level.

    example: oak tree, caterpillar
  198. Pyramid of Numbers
    The number of individuals decreases at each trophic level.

    For example: in glassland, there may be hundred of plants /sm, dozens of inseccts that feed on the plants, a few spiders feeding on the insects, and birds that feed on the spiders.
  199. Inverted Pyramid of Numbers
    One single producer such as an oak tree can support hundreds of herbivorous beetles, caterpillars, and other primary consumers, which in turn, may support thousands of predators.
  200. Pyramid of Biomass
    • Weighing the organisms in each trophic level.
    • example: an oak tree weighs more than all its herbivores and predators combined. Shows an upright pyramid.
  201. What is standing crop?
    The totall biomass in an ecosystem at any one point in time.
  202. Inverted Pyramid of Biomass
    Example: in some marine and lake systems, the biomass of phytoplankton supports a higher biomass of zooplankton. This is possible because the rate of production of phytoplankton biomass is much higher than that of zooplankton and the small phytoplankton processes large amounts of energy.
  203. Pyramid of Energy
    • Shows the rate of energy production rather than standing crop.
    • It is NEVER inverted.
    • Example: howard Odum's energy pyramid for Silver Springs also shows that large amounts of energy pass through decomposers, despite their relatively small biomass.

    The higest amounts of free energy are found at the lowest trophic levels.
  204. 1st and 2nd Laws of thermodynamics
    1) Energy can not be created nor destroyed

    2) During energy transformation much of the useful energy is lost to the system.
  205. 10% Rule
    Only 10% of the energy in any trophic level passes into the next level.
  206. What is Biomagnification?
    The tendency of certain chemicals to concentrate in higher tropic levels in food chains.

    example: in a Lake Michigan food chain, the highest concentration of DDT was found in gulls, tertiary consumers that feed on fishes that, in turn, eat small insects. The biomagnification of DDT in lipids causes its concentration to increase at each  successive link in the food chain.
  207. What is Bioaccumulation?
    Refers to the accumulation of substances such as pesticides, or other organic chemicals in an organism.

    Example: accumulation of DDT in Lake Michigan food chains.
    • seed
    • embryo & nutrients in a protective coat
  208. ovule (consists of)
    • megasporangium
    • megaspore
    • protective integuments
  209. conifers
    cone-bearing gymnosperms
  210. flower
    • angiosperm structure for sexual reproduction
    • --> fruit
  211. sepal
    • encloses flower
    • (green underpart)
  212. stamen
    produces pollen

    • filament
    • anther-where pollen is produced
  213. carpel
    • ovary > ovule
    • style
    • stigma-where pollen is recieved
  214. fruit
    • mature ovary that protects seed and aids in disperal
    • fleshy or dry
  215. embryo sac
    female gametophyte that develops > ovule > ovary
  216. cross pollination
    pollination between different plants
  217. micropyle
    pore to the inside of ovary
  218. double fertilization
    2 sperm goes into ovule

    • 1st fertilizes egg
    • 2nd goes to central cell and initiates development of endosperm (fruit)
  219. cotyledons
    seed leaves
  220. basal angiosperms
    less derived and include flowering plants from old lineages

    amboralla trichopoda, water lilies, and star anise
  221. magnoliids
    • share traits with basal angiosperms but evolved later
    • magnolia, laurels, blakc pepper plants
  222. monocots
    1/4 of angiosperms

    • 1 cotyledon
    • parallel veins
    • scattered vascular tissue
    • fibrous roots
    • 1 opening in pollen grain
    • floral organ in 3x
  223. eudicot
    2/3 of angiosperms

    • 2 cotyledons
    • netlike veins
    • rings of vascular tissue
    • taproot (mainroot) present
    • 3 openings in pollen grain
    • floral organs in 4x/5x
    • Hemiparasites
    • Parasites of the xylem to use water and minerals from host
    • Have photosynthetic leaves to make food
  224. Holoparasites
    • Parasites of both xylem and phloem
    • Usually have small, yellowish scaly leaves incapable of photosynthesis
  225. 6 organisms that cause plant diseases
    • Bacteria
    • Stramenopiles (OOmycetes)
    • Fungi (Asco, Deutero, Basidio)
    • Viruses
    • Nematodes
    • Parasitic Plants
  226. Mycotoxins are
    compounds produced by fungi while infecting plants that are toxic to humans and animals
  227. 4 Mycotoxins
    • Aflatoxin
    • Vomitoxin
    • Fumonisins
    • Ergot alkaloid toxins
  228. Vomitoxin
    caused by...
    • Deoxynivalenol
    • Giberella Ear Rot of Corn, Head Blight of Wheat
    • Animals vomit and refuse to eat
  229. Fumonisins
    caused by
    • Fusarium moniliforme
    • Fusarium Ear Rot of Corn
    • Blind Staggers, pulmonary edema, cancer, death
  230. Ergot alkaloid toxins
    caused by
    • Claviceps purpurea
    • Ergot of Rye, St Anthony's Fire, Gangrene
    • What are bryophytes?
    • Land plants that are non-vascular. They don't have flowers, nor do they produce seeds.
  231. How do bryophytes reproduce?
    Bryophytes reproduce via spores.
  232. The bryophytes consist of three groups:
    The Hepatophyta (liverworts), Anthocerotophyta (hornworts), and Bryophyta (mosses).
  233. What is an antheridium?
    A haploid structure or organ producing and containing male gametes.
  234. What is an archegonium?
    A haploid structure or organ producing and containing female gametes.
  235. What are dioicous bryophytes?
    Bryophytes that produce only antheridia or archegonia on a single plant body.
  236. What are monoicous bryophytes?
    Bryophytes that produce both antheridia and archegonia on the same plant body.
    • what are bryophytes?
    • •Primitive plants
  237. •Reproduce by spores
  238. •Alternation of generations
  239. •Most have stems and leaves
  240. •Lack vascular tissue
  241. •Lack root system
  242. what are the substrate tolerance for bryophytes?
    rock, wood and soil
  243. what are the types of growth forms for bryophytes?
    • turf
    • cushion- stems packed together conserve H20
    • mat- grows on rotting logs
    • weft- starts growing straight then curving
    • fan- grows on tree trunks, (tropical region)
    • dendroids- look like trees
  244. what is apocarp?
    means upright growth
  245. what is pleurocarp?
    means relaxed growth
  246. what is the protonema?
    thread-like chain of cells that forms the earliest stage of a bryophyte life cycle
  247. what is a rhizoid?
    structure in plants, fungi and some other organisms that functions like a root in support or absorption
  248. leaf types
    • cell shapes
    • alar cells
    • costa
    • margin
    • awn
  249. what are the reproductive features?
  250. reproduction in bryophytes involve....
    sexual and asexual stages
  251. vegatative reproduction include..

    brood bodies

  252. common liverwort
  253. peat moss