BIOL41 Exam 3 -1

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daynuhmay
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189320
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BIOL41 Exam 3 -1
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2012-12-13 14:16:41
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microbio
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BIOL41 Exam 3 -1
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  1. cell wall antibiotics
    • target PTG
    • contain -lactam ring
    • penicillins
  2. cell membrane antibiotics
    • disrupe membrane fcn by forming pores for cytoplasm to come out
    • polymyxin, amphotericin
  3. protein synthesis antibiotics (4 main inhibitors)
    • 1) aminoglycosides
    • 2) tetracycline
    • 3) chloramphenicol
    • 4) erythromycin
  4. antimetabolites
    prevent precursors to important proteins from being made
  5. primary targets of antiviral drugs
    • prevention of attachment/release
    • DNA synthesis
  6. 3 antiviral agents discussed
    • 1) interferon
    • 2) nucleotide analogs
    • 3) drugs to prevent attachement
  7. superinfection
    • secondary infection that is a result of antibiotic use
    • population of body microbes affected with broad spectrum antibiotic taken
  8. methods of action for attachment prevention
    • block receptor on cell
    • block enzymatic activity on surface of cell to inhibit release/attachment of virus
  9. drug resistance
    • microbe used to be sensitive to drug, but no longer is
    • ex: MERSA
  10. MERSA
    methacillin resistant S. aureus
  11. How to combat drug resistance (4)
    • 1) maintain high concentration of drug in body
    • 2) combination/synergistic drugs
    • 3) limit use
    • 4) new drugs
  12. resident microbiota of skin
    • areas of skin that are more moist have more microbes
    • very few species on conjunctiva
  13. resident microbiota of respiratory tract
    • mose has unique microbiota
    • sparse in trachea/bronchii
    • none in alveoli
  14. resident microbiota of upper GI
    • colonize surface of mouth
    • found in large numbers in saliva
    • scant in stomach/small intestine (too acidic)
  15. resident microbiota of lower GI
    • mostly strict anaerobes
    • >400 species ID'd
    • mutualistic
  16. flora balance disruptors (7)
    • 1) stress
    • 2) starvation
    • 3) parasitic organisms
    • 4) altitude changes
    • 5) diarrhea
    • 6) antibiotics
    • 7) probiotics
  17. resident microbiota of the urinary & reproductive systems
    • mix of skin & gut microbes
    • change during puberty, menopause, with menstrual cycle
  18. Sites that do NOT have normal flora
    • alveoli
    • bladder, kidneys, ureter
  19. pathogenicity
    ability of a pathogen to produce an infectious disease in an organism
  20. pathogen
    infectious agent that causes disease in its host
  21. virulence
    • how sick a pathogen makes you
    • determined by how many virulence factors a microbe possesses
  22. virulence factor
    molecules expressed and secreted by pathogens to infect its host
  23. infection
    microbes growing in a host and moving farther in
  24. contamination
    microbe gets on you
  25. disease
    outward symptoms of an infection 
  26. toxin
    substance that damages host cell
  27. intoxication
    • caused by a toxin produced by microbes from outside the body and then ingested by a person
    • symptoms caused by toxins
  28. toxemia
    • presence of toxins in the blood
    • ex: TSS
  29. potential portals of pathogen entry (4)
    • 1) skin
    • 2) mucosal membranes
    • 3) food/water
    • 4) placenta/birth canal
  30. vertical transmission
    transmission of an infection from mother to child
  31. adhesin
    • cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate bacterial adhesion
    • virulence factor
  32. invasive enzyme
    • allows bacteria to invade deeper tissues
    • hyaluronidase, collagenase
  33. invasive bacteria
    • "trick" cells into taking them in
    • Salmonella, Shigella
  34. how are capsules an avoidance mechanism?
    phagocytosis is blocked or rendered incomplete
  35. coagulase
    • evasion defense
    • breaks down fibrinogen into fibrin to use as protection & form abscess
  36. kinase
    used by bacteria to break out of surrounding clotting protein from host
  37. neurotoxin
    exotoxin that interferes with signaling between neurons
  38. cytotoxin
    exotoxin that has a toxic effect on certain cells
  39. enterotoxin
    exotoxin released by a microorganism in the intestine
  40. 3 types of exotoxins
    neurotoxin, enterotoxin, cytotoxin

    one of the most common types of virulence factors
  41. botulism toxin
    • from Clostridium botulinum
    • neurotoxin
    • interferes w/ signal between neuromuscular jcns
    • relaxes muscles
  42. Why shouldn't you give honey to an infant?
    honey is a known source of Clostridium botulinum spores
  43. tetanus toxin
    • exotoxin from Clostridium tetanus
    • blocks transmission to inhibitory neurons needed to relax muscles
    • all muscles permanently contracted
  44. endotoxin
    • LPS
    • released from Gram(-) outer layer when cell dies
    • causes shock, Typhoid fever in host
    • most toxic part is Lipid A
  45. 5 stages of disease progression
    • 1) incubation (day 0-10)
    • 2) prodromal symptoms (10-13)
    • 3) acme (13-16)
    • 4) decline (16-18)
    • 5) convalesence
  46. portals of pathogen exit (8)
    • 1) ear
    • 2) broken skin
    • 3) tears
    • 4) nose
    • 5) mouth
    • 6) feces
    • 7) urine
    • 8) semen
  47. epidemiology
    study of the spread of diseases
  48. resevoir of infection (& 3 types)
    • normal habitat of an infection
    • 1) humans
    • 2) animals
    • 3) inanimate objects
  49. zoonosis
    infection from animals
  50. examples of nonliving resevoirs
    • soil
    • vegetables
    • meats
    • water
    • milk
  51. fomite
    • inanimate object "between" the sick person and next person
    • indirect form of disease transmission

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