Podiatry Boards Part 2
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Indirect bilirubin is what and when is it elevated?
Unconjugated and increases with hemolytic diseases or bleeding.
When does direct or conjugated bilirubin increase?
In obstructive disease
GGT is a marker for what?
Liver problems when ALK phos is also elevated.
An increase in the BUN/Cr ratio means what?
Higher BUN suggesting pre-renal problems such as renal stenosis.
A decrease in BUN/Cr ratio tells us what?
- Cr is higher meaning that there is something wrong with the kidneys.
- Uremia: protein in the urine and means this person should be on dialysis.
What are the normal levels of aerterial blood gases and where is it taken from?
Radial artery and normal value is >40mmHg
Metabolic acidosis if bicarb is high and pH is low?
Compensation is respiratory alkalosis, hyperventilate
Who is prone to get Metabolic Acidosis?
How do you calculate the anion gap?
- Cation (Na) - Anion (Bicarb +Cl)
- High anion gap is ketoacidosis in DM
What are some causes of anion gap?
- MUD PILES
- Lactic Acidosis
- Ehylene glycol
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