SPSC

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Author:
tborck
ID:
189343
Filename:
SPSC
Updated:
2013-01-09 23:24:29
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E02
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DECISION MAKING
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  1. What is a simple, routine matter for which a manager has an established decision rule- The manager performs the decision activity on a daily basis. Re-occurring and does not require a lot of analysis
    Programmed decisions
  2. Decision is a choice made from
    available alternatives
  3. _____________________are new, complex decision that requires a creative solution.
    Non-programmed decisions

    The decision is unique and unstructured and requires considerable judgment
  4. _______________is a major part of input for non-programmed decisions
    Intuition
  5. Identification of the __________ is important, otherwise the manager may be reacting to symptoms
    real problem
  6. 1st Step in the Decision Making Process
    Defining the problem
  7. 3rd Step in the Decision Making Process
    Evaluating the data and diagnosing the situation
  8. Optimizing is
    defined as the term used for Selecting the “best” alternative.
  9. Satisficing is
    defined as selecting the alternative that minimally meets the decision criteria
  10. 7th Step in the Decision Making Process
    GATHER FEEDBACK

    • (Once the decision is made feedback concerning the
    • outcomes is vital to determine success or missed opportunity)
  11. the 8th Step in the Decision Making Process
    FOLLOW-UP

    (Decision making is not complete without some form of follow-up and appraisal of actions taken.  When results are not as anticipated, each step of the process has to be repeated and evaluated)
  12. The Decision Making Process is a______________ .
    never ending process

    (Solutions may need to be altered or revised)
  13. The final step in the decision-making process is
    Feedback and Monitoring.
  14. Effective Decisions are?
    A timely decision that meets a desired objective and is acceptable to those individuals affected by it.
  15. The rational model of decision making assumes the decision maker...
    can calculate the probability of success for alternatives
  16. A Decision Maker using the rational model can calculate the probability of success for each alternative.

    (T or F)
    True
  17. In the rational model the decision maker strives to_________ ,
    that is to select the best possible alternative.
    OPTIMIZE
  18. BOUNDED RATIONALITY THEORY was developed by
    Herbert Simon
  19. Given the assumptions of the rational model, it has been deemed unrealistic because there are time constraints and limits to knowledge and information processing capabilities.

    (T or F)
    True
  20. Shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity are known as?
    Heuristics or Gut Decisions
  21. An effective decision is timely, acceptable to the individuals affected by it, and
    meets the desired objective.
  22. What is the model that is most realistic in portraying the managerial decision process.
    Bounded rationality
  23. Under what Theory are managers comfortable making decisions without identifying all alternatives and options
    Bounded Rationality Theory
  24. What is an important element of the bounded rationality model
    Satisficing
  25. Risk Aversion is
    Tendency to choose options that entail fewer risk takers
  26. Who are more adverse to risk taking ?
    Woman
  27. Escalation of Commitment is caused by
    the tendency to continue to support a failing course of action.
  28. Which is a way not to Deal with Escalation of Commitment
    1-Split responsibility for decisions
    2-Provide a graceful exit for individuals so their image is not tarnished
    3-Have groups rather than individuals make the initial investment decision diffuses responsibility for failed decision
    4- Act autonomously
    4- Act autonomously
  29. what are the 4 steps of the Z-Model of problem solving
    • 1-Examine the facts and details
    • 2-Generate alternatives
    • 3-Analyze the alternatives objectively
    • 4-Weigh the impact (feeling)
  30. An individual’s preference for gathering information and evaluating alternatives is?
    Cognitive Style
  31. The left side of your brain is the center for
    logic, detail and planning
  32. The right side of your brain is the center for
    creative functions
  33. The right side of the brain is best used for
    developing visions and strategic plans
  34. How do you develop the Left side of the brain ?
    By setting goals for completing tasks, and work to attain these goals
  35. How do you develop the Right side of the brain ?
    by asking “what if” questions.
  36. In the considering whether the right or the left part of the brain should be utilized in decision making, the ideal situation is to be
    brain lateralized.
  37. If a person crafts a vision and plan strategically they are _____  brain dominant
    right
  38. What is a fast, positive force in decision making utilized at a
    level below consciousness that involves learned patterns of information?
    Intuition
  39. What is the process influenced by individual and organizational factors that results in the production of novel and useful ideas, products, or both?
    Creativity:
  40. Intuition Common Assumptions are?


    • 1-Involves learned patterns of behavior
    • 2-They are Decisions made on “hunches" or Gut Instinct
    • 3-are a positive force in decision making
    • 4-they are fast.
  41. Who in his research found that managers do not appear to use a step by step approach to decision making
    Henry Mintzberg
  42. Four stages of the creative process
    • Preperation
    • Incubation
    • Verification
    • Illumination
  43. ________ is the stage of creativity where one engages in other
    activities while the mind considers the problem.
    Incubation
  44. _________ is the stage that occurs when you sense a resolution to the problem “a light bulb goes on."
    Illumination
  45. People with a “_________________” were more successful for creative problem solving.
    Positive Mental Attitude
  46. Organizational influences-Can either support creativity or
    impede efforts.
  47. Creative organizations include supportive relationships with supervisors, a flexible workplace and
    participative decision making.
  48. Managers of the future need to develop __________ in the ability to promote creativity in organizations.
    competencies
  49. Name the 4 Types of Creativity
    • 1-Responsive
    • 2-Expected
    • 3-Contributory
    • 4-Proactive
  50. A common mistaken assumption is that you either have creativity or don’t.

    (T or F)
    True, that is a common Mistake but - Creativity can be learned.
  51. The organizational foundation of Participative Decision Making are?
    • A participative and supportive culture is essential
    •                            
    • Team oriented work design lead to broader task and responsibility.
  52. Participative decision making tends to be associated with higher levels of employee job satisfaction.

    (T or F)
    True
  53. Name the 3 Individual Prerequisites of Participative Decision Making


    • 1–Capability to become psychologically involved in participative activities
    • 2–Act autonomously
    • 3–Ability to see personal benefit
  54. In Group Decision Making ______________ is a positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group.
    Role of synergy
  55. truth wins rule is
    Used best when the decision has a correct answer.
  56. The majority wins rule-The group supports whatever position is taken by the majority of its members.  This is used in
     
    judgment tasks (that is when a decision is a matter of preference or opinion)
  57. When the group decision involves a matter of preference or opinion, the most appropriate social decision scheme is
    the consensus rule.
  58. A shortcoming or liability of the group process in decision making is
    too much time spent making the decision
  59. Three disadvantages of group decision making.


    • Pressure to conform
    • Domination of the group by an individual or clique
    • Time
  60.  ___________is a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgment resulting from pressure within the group.
    Groupthink
  61. _____________ is the tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members.
    Group Polarization
  62. When a decision must be made quickly, there is more potential for Group Think. 

    (T or F)
    True
  63. What is defined as the majority view and judgments that are assumed to be unanimous?
    Illusion of Unanimity
  64. High Conflict is a symptom of group think.

    T or F
    • False -  High Conflict is not a symptom
    • of group think

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