Anatomy Physiology - Bones

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Anatomy Physiology - Bones
2012-12-13 21:05:38
Anatomy Physiology

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  1. Bones include these active, living tissues
    • Bone tissue
    • Cartilage
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Blood
    • Nervous tissue
  2. Bones support and protect
    Softer tissues
  3. Bones provide points of 
    attachment for muscles
  4. Bones house
    blood-producing cells
  5. Bones store
    inorganic salts
  6. The 4 classes of bone according to shape are 
    long, short, flat, or irregular
  7. Short bones are shaped like
  8. Examples of short bones are 
    the bones of the wrists and ankles; patella
  9. Flat bones are ________ structures
  10. Examples of flat bones are
    ribs, the scapulae, and some bones of the skull
  11. Irregular bones have a variety of 
  12. Examples of irregular bones are
    the vertebrae that compose the backbone, and many facial bones
  13. Round bones are also called 
    sesamoid bones
  14. Sesamoid bones are ______ and ____ 
    small, nodular
  15. Sesamoid bones are embedded within 
    in a tendon adjacent to a joint, where the tendon is compressed
  16. An example of a sesamoid bone is the
  17. An expanded end of a long bone is called an 
  18. An epiphysis articulates with
    another bone (forms a joint)
  19. Articular cartilage is located
    on the outer surface of teh articulating portion of the epiphysis
  20. The shaft of a long bone is called a 
  21. The ___ is the widening part of the bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis
  22. What is periosteum?
    a tough, vascular covering of dense connective tissue that encloses the bone everywhere but the articular cartilage on its ends
  23. Periosteum functions to___
    help form and repair bone tissue
  24. Processes provide sites for 
    attachment of ligaments and tendons
  25. The wall of the diaphysis is composed of _____ bone.
  26. Compact bone has
    a continuous extracellular matrix with no gaps
  27. The epiphyses are largely composed of ______ bone
  28. Spongy bone consists of bony plates called
  29. A bone usually has
    compact and spongy bone?
  30. What is the name of the semi-rigid tube with a hollow chamber that runs through the diaphysis?
    the medullary cavity
  31. What does endosteum line?
    the spaces of the spongy bone
  32. What kind of cells does endosteum contain?
    bone-forming cells
  33. What is the tissue that fills the spaces of bone?
  34. What are the two forms of marrow?
    red and yellow
  35. What are bone cells called?
  36. What are lacunae?
    tiny, bony chambers
  37. What do lacunae form?
    concentric circles around central/Haversian canals
  38. Osteocytes transport
    nutrients and wastes to and from nearby cells
  39. What do cellular processes of osteocytes pass through?
  40. What is the extracellular matrix of bone composed of?
    collagen and inorganic salts
  41. What is an osteon?
    a cylinder-shaped unit containing bone cells that surround a central canal
  42. What is the substance of compact bone formed from?
    many osteons cemented together
  43. Each central canal contains what?
    blood vessels and nerve fibers surrounded by loose connective tissue
  44. What do perforating canals contain?
    larger blood vessels and nerves by which the smaller blood vessels and nerve fibers in central canals communicate with the surface of the bone and the medullary cavity
  45. what is spongy bone composed of?
    osteocytes and extracellular matrix
  46. Unlike compact bone, the bone cells do not:
    aggregate around central canals
  47. What lie within spongy bone cells?
    the trabeculae
  48. Where do osteocytes get nutrients from?
    substances diffusing into the canaliculi that lead to the surfaces of these thin, bony plates
  49. When do parts of the skeleton begin to form?
    During the first few weeks of prenatal development
  50. When do bony structures stop growing?
  51. How do bones form?
    by replacing existing connective tissue
  52. Where do intramembranous bones originate?
    within sheetlike layers of connective tissues
  53. Where do endochondral bones originate
    As masses of cartilage later replaced by bone tissue
  54. What are examples of intramembranous bones?
    • skull
    • clavicles
    • sternum
    • some facial bones (mandible, maxillae, and zygomatic bones)
  55. What appear at the sites of their future bones during the development of intramembranous bones?
    membranelike layers of unspecialized connective tissues
  56. What supplies the connective tissue layers?
    dense networks of blood vessels
  57. What are osteoblasts?
    bone-forming cells
  58. What do osteoblasts deposit?
    bony matrix around themselves
  59. What can spongy bone become?
    compact bone as spaces fill with bone matrix
  60. as development continues, what can osteoblasts become surrounded by?
    extracellular matrix; become secluded within lacunae
  61. extracellular matrix enclosing the processes of osteoblasts give rise to what?
  62. what happens when osteoblasts are isolated?
    they become osteocytes
  63. where does periosteum come from?
    cells of the connective tissue of the developing bone
  64. what is compact bone formed by?
    osteoblasts on the inside of the periosteum forming a layer of compact bone over the surface of the newly formed spongy bone
  65. what is intramembranous ossification?
    the process of replacing connective tissue to form an intramembranous bone
  66. what are most of the bones of the skeleton?
    endochonral bones
  67. what do endochondral bones develop as?
    masses of hyaline cartilage shaped like future bony structures
  68. eventually, what happens to hyaline cartilage?
    dies and degenerates
  69. as the cartilage decomposes, _________ forms
    a periosteum
  70. What does periosteum form from?
    connective tissue that encircles the developing structure
  71. as cartilage tissue disintegrates, what invades it?
    blood vessels and partially differentiated connective tissue cells
  72. what do some of the cells differentiate into?
    osteoblasts. the begin to form spongy bone in the spaces previously housing the cartilage
  73. What do osteoblasts form?
  74. What is endochondral ossification?
    the process of forming an endochondral bone by the replacement of hyaline cartilage
  75. What is the epiphyseal plate?
    a cartilaginous layer in the long bone epiphysis that grows and lengthens the bone
  76. In a long bone, what separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis?
    epiphyseal plate
  77. What do osteoclasts break down?
    the calcified matrix
  78. what do osteoclasts phagocytize?
    components of the bony matrix
  79. after osteoclasts remove the extracellular matrix, what invades the region and what does it do?
    • bone-building osteoblasts
    • deposit bone tissue in place of the calcified cartilage
  80. a long bone continues to lengthen while ____
    the cartilaginous cells of the epiphyseal plates are active
  81. when is lengthening of the bone no longer possible?
    the ossification centers of the diaphysis and epiphyses meet and the epiphyseal plates ossify
  82. when does the medullary cavity form?
    when osteoclasts erode other bone tissue on the inside of the compact bone
  83. bone in what regino remains spongy?
    central regions of the epiphyses and diaphysis
  84. what does hyaline cartilage on the ends persists as?
    articular cartilage
  85. throughout life, osteoclast _______ and osteoblasts _____________
    • resorb bone tissue
    • replace the bone
  86. what percentage of bone calcium is exchanged each year?
  87. what factors affect bone development, growth, and repair?
    • nutrition
    • exposure to sunlight
    • hormonal secretions
    • physical exercise
  88. what is vitamin d necessary for?
    proper absorption of calcium in the small intestine
  89. what can result from a lack of vitamin d?
    • rickets
    • osteomalacia
  90. what is vitamin a necessary for?
    osteoblast and osteoclast activity during normal development
  91. what is vitamin c required for?
    collagen synthesis
  92. what does growth hormone stimulate?
    division of cartilage cells in the epiphyseal plates
  93. in children, what does the absence of growth hormone lead to?
    pituitary dwarfism
  94. an excess of growth hormone before the epiphyseal plates ossify leads to _______
    pituitary gigantism
  95. in adults, what does an excess of growth hormone lead to?
    acromegaly, in which the hands, feet, and jaw enlarge
  96. what can thyroxine halt and how?
    replacement of cartilage in the epiphyseal plates by causing an increase in cellular metabolism
  97. what does parathyroid hormone stimulate?
    an increase in the number and activity of osteoclasts, which break down bone
  98. what do sex hormones promote?
    formation of bone tissue
  99. what do sex hormones stimulate?
    ossification of the epiphyseal plates, and stop bone lengthening at a relatively early age
  100. why do females typically reach their maximum heights earlier than males?
    effect of estrogens on the epiphyseal plates is somewhat stronger than that of testosterone
  101. what does physical stress stimulate?
    bone growth
  102. bones give shape to what?
    structures such as the head, face, thorax, and limbs
  103. what bones support the body's weight?
    • lower limbs
    • pelvis
    • vertebral column
  104. what do the bones of the skull protect?
    the eyes, ears, and brain
  105. what bones protect the heart and lungs?
    rib cage and shoulder girdle
  106. what do bones of the pelvic girdle protect?
    lower abdominal and internal reproductive organs
  107. whas is hematopoiesis?
    process of cell formation
  108. where does blood cell formation begin?
    in the yolk
  109. later in development, where are blood cells made?
  110. what is marrow and where is it?
    • soft, netlike mass of connective tissue
    • within the medullary cavities of long bones
  111. where does red marrow function?
    spongy bone of the skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, and hip bones
  112. where is red marrow found?
    spongy bone of the skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, and hip bones
  113. with increasing age, what happens to red marrow?
    it is replaced by yellow marrow
  114. what does yellow marrow store?
  115. in an adult, where is red marrow primarily found?
    spongy bone of the skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, and hip bones
  116. what makes up the extracellular matrix of bone tissue?
    • collagen
    • inorganic mineral salts
  117. inorganic mineral salts account for what percentage by weight? 
  118. what are hydroxyapatities?
    small crystals of a type of calcium phosphate
  119. why does the body require calcium?
    • muscle cell contraction
    • nerve impulse conduction
    • blood clot formation
  120. when blood calcium is low, what happens?
    parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone tissue releasing calcium salts from the extracellular matrix into the blood
  121. very high blood calcium levels inhibit what?
    osteoclast activity
  122. bone tissue contains lesser amounts of what?
    magnesium, sodium, potassiu, and carbonate ions
  123. how many bones are in a human skeleton?
  124. flat bones of the skull are tightly joined by what?
  125. what are the two major portions of the skeleton?
    axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
  126. what does the axial skeleton contain?
    bony and cartilaginous parts that support and protect the organs of the head, neck, trunk
  127. what is the skull composed of?
    the cranium and the facial bones
  128. how many bones does a human skull usually consist of?
    22 bones
  129. what is the moveable bone in the skull?
  130. some cranial and skull bones together form the ____ of the eye.
  131. what does the cranium enclose and protect?
    the brain
  132. what are the eight major bones that make up the cranium?
    • frontal bone
    • parietal bone
    • occipital bone
    • temporal bone
    • sphenoid bone
    • ethmoid bone
    • superior nasal concha
    • middle nasal concha
  133. the facial skeleton consists of how many immovable bones?
  134. the facial bones provide sites of attachment for _______
    muscles that move the jaw and control facial expressions
  135. at birth, the skill is _____ developed with ________ connecting the cranial bones
    incompletely; fibrous membranes
  136. what are fontanels?
    soft spots
  137. what do fontanels permit?
    some mvmt. between the bones so that the developing skull is partially compressible and can slightly change shape
  138. what happens to fontanels eventually?
    they close and cranial bones grow together