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external respiration vs. internal respiration
- external respiration is the diffusion of gases in lungs
- internal respiration is the diffusion of gases at body tissues
what is external and internal respiration dependent on?
- diffusion of molecules between gas and liquid
- partial pressure gradients
what is dalton's law?
total pressure exerted by mixture of gases=sum of pressures exerted by each gas
how does the air composition entering the respiratory structure change in character?
- decrease in Po2 and increase in Pco2increase in water vapor and temperature
what is Henry's Law
- amount of gas that dissolves in liquid depends on solubility (Co2 is more soluble than o2) and temperature (solubility decrease with increase in temperature)
- decrease in volume, increase in pressure, more gas dissolves in liquid
what is the rate of release of O2 determined by?
- Po2 of tissues, pH and temperature
- low Po2 and pH, and high temp increases O2 release
how are o2 transported?
- 1.5% through solution in plasma
- 98.5% loosely bound to each Fe of hemoglobin (reversible reaction)
what is the Bohr Effect?
weaking of the Hb-O2 bond
increase in temp, H+ and Pco2 does what?
- modify the structure of hemoglobin (decrease affinity for o2), enhance unloading
- occur in systemic capillaries
- shift O2 hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right
why is it harder to breath at high altitude?
partial pressure is lower, so there is less of a pressure gradient: not as much O2 gets into blood, so need to breathe more to get the same amount of oxygen
CO2 transported in blood
- 7-10% dissolved in plasma
- 20% bound to globin of hemoglobin (amino acid-carbaminohemoglobin)
- 70% transported as bicarbonate ions in plasma
what is the catalyst of the breakdown of Co2 to HCO3-?
where does the Co2 and water combine in?
RBC to form carbonic acid which quickly dissociates to bicarbonate ions