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What is the function of the thyroid cartilage?
- Made of hyaline cartilage
- Looks like a shield
- Ligament to hyoid
- laryngeal prominence (adam's apple)
- Ant. anchor for vocal cords and epiglottis
What is the function of the cricoid cartilage?
- Hyaline cartilage ring
- Ligament to thyroid cartilage and to trachea
What is the function of the epiglottis?
- Elastic cartilage
- Covers larynx while swallowing
What is the function of the arytenoid cartilages?
- Posterior view
- Hyaline cartilage
- Vocal cords anchor posteriorly
What is the function of the corniculate cartilages?
- Elastic cartilage
- Move with arytenoids
What is the function of the cuneiform cartilages?
- Elastic cartilage buried in lateral walls
- Supports soft tissue in lateral walls
What is the trachea composed of?
- Pseudostratified ciliated columnar ET with GCs and lamina propria
- Submucosa is WFCT with tracheal glands which secrete mucus
- Tracheal rings are C shaped hyaline cartilage. Esophagus is posterior to this.
- Trachealis muscle is smooth MT which helps us cough
Why does the trachea have C shaped cartilage rings?
C shaped rings prevent collapse of trachea.
What does the trachea serve?
What do the primary bronchus serve?
1 lung-left or right
What do the secondary bronchus serve and how many are there?
- A lobe
- 5 of them-2 on the left and 3 on the right
What do the tertiary bronchus serve and how many are there?
- Bronchopulmonary segments
- 18-20 (always 10 on right)
What zone are the bronchi part of?
Conducting zone of the respiratory system
What zone are the alveoli part of?
Respiratory zone of the respiratory system
What are the different layers of the trachea?
- Mucosa-Pseudostratified ciliated columnar ET with Gcs
- Tunica submucosa-thick with many tracheal glands (seromucous)
- Hyaline cartilage rings
- Trachealis muscle-Smooth MT
What are type I cells and what is their function?
- Simple squamous ET cells
- Fxn: form respiratory membrane with endothelium of the capillary for gas exchange
What are type II cells and what are their functions?
- Septal cells
- Secrete pulmonary surfactant-breaks surface tension of water so alveoli don't stick
What are alveolar macrophages and what is their function?
- Dust cells
- Hang out in lumen
- Phagocytize cells
What occurs when someone has emphysema?
Macrophages destroy lung tissue
What is the function of the renal pelvis?
Funnels urine to the ureter. Sits in renal sinus
What will you find in the hilus of the urinary bladder?
Renal artery, vein and ureter
Describe fluid flow in the kidneys
- Urine exits renal papillae
- Minor calyx
- Major calyx
- Renal pelvis
- Urinary bladder
What are the different uriniferous tubules and what are their functions?
- Nephrons: filters blood and modifies filtrate
- Collecting duct: gathers filtrate from nephron and may modify it under certain conditions-urine exits here
What are the different capillary beds in the urinary system and how do they differ?
- 1st bed: glomerulus for filtration-not gas exchange!
- 2nd bed: peritubular capillaries or vasa recta for gas exchange and selective reabsoprtion and secretion
What does the renal corpuscle contain?
- Bowmans capsule:
- -Parietal layer: simple squamous ET
- -Visceral layer:podocytes with filtration slits
- -Capsular space
What is the structural difference between the DCT and PCT?
- PCT: simple cuboidal ET with tall microvilli for selective reabsorption of solutes and water into peritubular capillaries
- DCT: Simple cuboidal ET with no modifications. Selective secretion from peritubular capillaries
What are the different types of nephrons?
- Cortical nephrons: shorter and most abundant
- Juxtamedullary nephonrs: longer
What is the difference between the ascending limb of loop of Henle and descending limb?
- Descending: simple squamous ET. Water exits by osmosis
- Ascending: simple cuboidal ET. Reabsorption of Na and Cl ions
What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus consist of?
Where DCT contacts afferent arteriole-macula densa
What is the function of the macula densa cells?
Monitor ion filtrate and they stimulate juxtaglomerular cells of afferent arteriole to secrete renin
What is the function of the hormone renin?
Increases blood volume/ion concentration
What is the structure and function of the collecting duct?
- Simpel cuboidal-> simple columnar ET
- Last chance to reabsorb water if needed
How does the pituitary gland work on the collecting duct?
- Pituitary releases ADH if you're dehydrated
- Tells collecting duct ET to let water leave and enter the peritubular capillaries
- Alcohol inhibits this
What is the structure of the urinary bladder?
- Mucosa: transitional ET and lamina propria (highly vascularized)
- Muscularis: detrusor muscle. Longitudinal, circular, longitudinal
- Adventitia-areolar CT
What is the structure of the ureter?
- Mucosa: star shaped lumen. Transitional ET with lamina propria
- Submucosa: none
- Muscularis: 2 layers for peristalsis-inner longitudinal outer circular
- Adventitia-areolar CT
What is the function of the trigone?
Directs urine to internal urethral orifice
What are the sphincters of the urinary bladder?
- Internal urethral sphincter: smooth MT surrounds internal urethral orifice
- External urethral sphincter: skeletal MT part of urogenital diaphragm
What is the structure and function of the urethra?
- Delivers urine out through the external orifice
- ET changes alon length from transitional to non keratinized stratified squamous ET
- Smooth MT in wall is for peristalsis
How do male and female urethras differ?
- Female: short and straight
- Male: long and more convuluted
- 3 regions:
- 1. Prostatic urethra
- 2. Membranous urethra
- 3. Spongy/Penile urethra
What is the function of the scrotum?
- Provides cooler environment for normal sperm development
- Contains dartos muscle
What is contained in the testes?
- Seminiferous tubules
- Tunican albuginea
- Tunica vaginalis-outer parietal layer and inner visceral layer
What is the function of seminal vesicles?
secretes seminal fluid
what is the function of Cowper's glands?
secretes pre ejaculatory fluid
what is the function of the prostate gland?
secrete seminal fluid
where will you find cremaster muscle and dartos muscle?
Smooth MT in subQ of the scrotum
what is the function of leydig/interstitial cells?
what is the function of sertoli cells?
- Support seminiferous tubules
- Form blood-testis barrier
- These are the "nurse" cells
what is the structure of the epididymis?
Pseduostratified columnar ET with stereocilia. These can reabsorb sperm. Fxn. sperm storage and maturation
what is the function of the vas defrens?
SPerm transport (peristalsis)
where do the seminal vesicles secrete into?
where do the cowper's gland secrete into?
into penile urethra
where does the prostate gland secrete into?
what is the function of the crura?
anchor penis to pubis
what is the function of the bulb of the penis?
anchors it to urogenital diaphragm
what are the "nurse" cells of the female reproductive system?
what is the function of the zona pellucida?
Protective glycoprotein coating
what is the corona radiata?
granulosa cells surrounding the zona pellucida
what is the function of thecal cells?
outermost granulosa cells produce androgen and pass it to granulosa cells which convert it to estrogen
what is the function of the corpus luteum if there is a pregnancy and if there is not?
- Is yes: secretes estrogen and progesterone until placenta takes over
- If not: degenerates and becomes corpus albicans
what is the function of the uterine tubes?
- fertilization and transport
- Simple ciliated columnar ET
what are the different layers of the uterus?
- 1. Perimetrium (outermost) serosa continuous with broad ligament
- 2. Myometrium-smooth MT. thick.
- 3. Endometrium-implantation. Highly vascular mucosa. SPiral arterioles will stretch. Simple columnar ET, lamina propria, uterine glands (secrete glycogen rich mucus)
what are the different layers of the endometrium?
- Stratum functionalis: closer to lumen. Shed with menses
- Stratum basalis: not shed. Replenishes stratum functionalis
what is the structure of the vagina?
- rugae with non keratinized stratified squamous ET
- Fornix is the space surrounding the cervix
- Paraurethral glands (anterior wall)
what is the structure and function of the clitorus?
- FXn: sensation
- 3 erectile masses: 2 corpora cavernosa, 2 crura that anchor to pubis, bulb of vestibule splits and surrounds deep to vestibule