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Test hman growth
Human growth test 1
What is nature?
What is nurture?
: The degree to which genetic or hereditary influences
: Experiential or enviromental influences
What is continuity?
What is discontinuity?
: concerns whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression thoughout the life span
: series of abrupt shifts
What are psychological forces?
All intrenal, cognitive, emotional, personality, perceptual and related factors that influence behaviour.
What are social cultural forces?
interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors
What are the life cycle factors?
they reflect the difference in how an even affects prople of different ages.
what are all three forces taht interact?
Biological, psychological, and socio cultural.
Who discovered psychodynamic?
Freud and Erikson
Who discovered Learning?
Watson, Skinner, and bandura
Who discovered cognitive?
Piaget, and Kohlberg
Who discovered ecological and systems?
Bronfenbrenner and lawton
Who discovered lifespan?
What are naturalistic observations?
"Real life" observations
What are structures observations?
Researcher creates a situation likely to result in a type of behavior in which she/he is interested
What are sampling behavior with tasks?
Kids selecting happy faces
What are self reports?
People answer questions about the topic of interest.
what are Physiological measures?
Measuring..HR, brain patterns, temp, etc
What are the two research methods? and describe
: Does this method consistently measure what is being studied?
: Does this measure provide a true picture of what is being studied.
What are some research ethics?
Total amount of chromosomes with egg and sperm unite?
how many chromosomes in a autosome?
Which chromosome is the sex chromosome?
what gender is XY?
What gender if XX?
What is a genotype?
Complete set of inherited traits
What is a phenotype?
how the traits are expressed and is the combined effect of genotype and environmental influences.
Alleles are the same, both of the childs parents have contributed similar genes for a trait.
the parents have contributed different version of the trait.
What are dizygotic twins?
come from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperms.
What are monozygotic twins?
twins com fro the union of one egg and one sperm that splits in two, soon after conception
When is the phase of zygote?
its when it travels down the fallopian tybe and is implanted in the uterine wall
What phase is the embryo?
body structures, internal organs, and the three larers of the embryo develop.
When is the phase of the fetus?
Week 9 to birth
Fetus at week 4?
Fetus at week 9?
Differentiation fo the ovaries and testes
Fetus at week 12?
Circulatory sytem begins to function
Fetus at week 32?
Age of viability
How can nutrition be a risk factor for a mother?
inadequate maternal nutrition may result in premature birth and low birth weight.
How can stress be a risk factor for the mother?
Extreme maternal stress is associated with low birth weight and premature births
How many stages of labor?
Stage 1 of labor?
lasts 12-24hrs for the first birth and includes contractions and the enlargement of the cervix to approximately 10cm
Stage 2 of labor?
actual birth of the baby and lasts about an hour
Stage 3 of labor?
lasts a few minutes and involves expelling of the placenta
Babies in low birth weight?
less than 5.5lbs
Babies in very low birth weight?
less than 3.3lbs
Babies in extremly low birth weight?
less than 2.2
What is the apgar index?
vitals are assess scored et added given a # that determin if baby need special assisstance. Lower than 7
What are the four states of a newborn?
what is a basic cry?
starts softly and builds in volume and intensity. often ween when the child is hungry
what is a mad cry?
more intense and louder cry
what is a pain cry?
starts with a loud wail, followed by long pause then gasping
how many hours does a baby sleep?
When do babies sleep all night?
3 or 4 months
When does rem sleep decrease on a newborn?
gradually decreases from 50% of the newborn sleep to about 25% in first year
What is SIDS
sudden and unexplainable death
decrease risk of SIDS?
sleep infants on their back
The three dimensions of temperament?
What is emiotionality?
is the strength of the infants emotional response to a situation
What is activity?
is the tempo and vigor of a childs physical activity
What is sociability?
the childs preference for being with other people
Infants gain how much wight in the first year?
triple there weight
Malnutrition to a child can cause?
childl to develp slow.
Where are all the neurons stored in the brain?
what happens after 3 weeks after conception?
the neural plate, a flat structure of cells forms
What happens by 28wks of conception?
the brain has all the neurons it will ever have
What hemisphere are the emotions in?
What hemisphere is your language at?
Posture and Balance of baby?
Top heavy lose balance
learn new balance for each posture
Stepping for infant?
move legs as soon as 6-7 months but dont learn to walk till developmentally ready
what is differentiation in coordinating skills?
mastery of component skills.
what is integration in coordinating skills?
combining them in sequence to accomplish the task
Fine motor skills at 4 months?
infants clumsily reach for objects
Fine motor skills by 5 months?
coordinate movement of the two hands
Fine motor skills by 2-3 years
children can use zippers but not buttons
Fine motor skills by 6yrs?
tying shoes is a skill
9month old infant self concept?
smille at face in the mirror but do not seem to recognize it as their own face
15-24months of infant self concept?
see the image int he mirror and touch their own face.
Age 2 infant and theory of mind?
child understands that people have desire and these cause behavior
age 3 infant and theory of mind?
distinguish between the mental world and the physical world
age 4 infant and theory of mind?
understands that behaviour is based on beliefs and that the beliefs can be wrong
What is a scheme?
Sense of the world through categories of related events, objects, and knwledge
What is assimilation?
new experiences fit into existing schemes.
required to benefit from experience
what is accommodation?
when schemes have to be modified as a consequence of new experiences.
Allows for dealing with comletely new data or expirience
What is equilibrium?
exists when threre is a balance between assimilation and accomodation
what is disequilibrium?
exists when more accomodation is occuring than assimilation
Period of sensorimotor development? what is it?
adapting and exploring enviroments
What is egocentrism?
the shild is unable to see the world from any viewpoing other than their own
What is centration?
child concentrate on only one dimension or aspect of a problem, ignoring other equally relevant aspects
What is apperance is reality?
innability to understand that apperance cen be misleading
when sensory information receive additional cognitive processing
Emotional and physical reactions to unfamiliar stimulus
a lessening of the reaction to a new stimulus
What is classical conditioning>
a neutral sitmulus becomes able to elicit a response that was previously caused by another simulus
What is aperant conditioning?
behaviors are affected by their consequences
What is imitation?
Learning from a older sibling
when does cooing happen?
at 2 months producing vowel sounds
when does babbling happen?
around 6 months
what happens with speech at 8-12months?
incorporate intonations, or change in pitch that are typical of the language they hear