HG 1

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  1. What is nature?
    What is nurture?
    • Nature: The degree to which genetic or hereditary influences
    • .
    • Nurture: Experiential or enviromental influences
  2. What is continuity?
    What is discontinuity?
    • Continuity: concerns whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression thoughout the life span
    • .
    • Discontinuity: series of abrupt shifts
  3. What are psychological forces?
    All intrenal, cognitive, emotional, personality, perceptual and related factors that influence behaviour.
  4. What are social cultural forces?
    interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors
  5. What are the life cycle factors?
    they reflect the difference in how an even affects prople of different ages.
  6. what are all three forces taht interact?
    Biological, psychological, and socio cultural.
  7. Who discovered psychodynamic?
    Freud and Erikson
  8. Who discovered Learning?
    Watson, Skinner, and bandura
  9. Who discovered cognitive?
    Piaget, and Kohlberg
  10. Who discovered ecological and systems?
    Bronfenbrenner and lawton
  11. Who discovered lifespan?
  12. What are naturalistic observations?
    "Real life" observations
  13. What are structures observations?
    Researcher creates a situation likely to result in a type of behavior in which she/he is interested
  14. What are sampling behavior with tasks?
    Kids selecting happy faces
  15. What are self reports?
    People answer questions about the topic of interest.
  16. what are Physiological measures?
    Measuring..HR, brain patterns, temp, etc
  17. What are the two research methods? and describe
    • Reliability: Does this method consistently measure what is being studied?
    • .
    • Validity: Does this measure provide a true picture of what is being studied.
  18. What are some research ethics?
    • Informed consent
    • Avoid Deception
  19. Total amount of chromosomes with egg and sperm unite?
  20. how many chromosomes in a autosome?
  21. Which chromosome is the sex chromosome?
  22. what gender is XY?
  23. What gender if XX?
  24. What is a genotype?
    Complete set of inherited traits
  25. What is a phenotype?
    how the traits are expressed and is the combined effect of genotype and environmental influences.
  26. Homozygous alleles?
    Alleles are the same, both of the childs parents have contributed similar genes for a trait.
  27. Heterozygous alleles?
    the parents have contributed different version of the trait.
  28. What are dizygotic twins?
    come from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperms.

  29. What are monozygotic twins?
    twins com fro the union of one egg and one sperm that splits in two, soon after conception
  30. When is the phase of zygote?
    • weeks 1-2
    • its when it travels down the fallopian tybe and is implanted in the uterine wall
  31. What phase is the embryo?
    • weeks 3-8
    • body structures, internal organs, and the three larers of the embryo develop.
  32. When is the phase of the fetus?
    Week 9 to birth
  33. Fetus at week 4?
    Heart beat
  34. Fetus at week 9?
    Differentiation fo the ovaries and testes
  35. Fetus at week 12?
    Circulatory sytem begins to function
  36. Fetus at week 32?
    Age of viability
  37. How can nutrition be a risk factor for a mother?
    inadequate maternal nutrition may result in premature birth and low birth weight.
  38. How can stress be a risk factor for the mother?
    Extreme maternal stress is associated with low birth weight and premature births
  39. How many stages of labor?
    3 stages
  40. Stage 1 of labor?
    lasts 12-24hrs for the first birth and includes contractions and the enlargement of the cervix to approximately 10cm
  41. Stage 2 of labor?
    actual birth of the baby and lasts about an hour
  42. Stage 3 of labor?
    lasts a few minutes and involves expelling of the placenta
  43. Babies in low birth weight?
    less than 5.5lbs
  44. Babies in very low birth weight?
    less than 3.3lbs
  45. Babies in extremly low birth weight?
    less than 2.2
  46. What is the apgar index?
    vitals are assess scored et added given a # that determin if baby need special assisstance. Lower than 7
  47. What are the four states of a newborn?
    • alert inactivity
    • walking activity
    • crying
    • sleeping
  48. what is a basic cry?
    starts softly and builds in volume and intensity. often ween when the child is hungry
  49. what is a mad cry?
    more intense and louder cry
  50. what is a pain cry?
    starts with a loud wail, followed by long pause then gasping
  51. how many hours does a baby sleep?
  52. When do babies sleep all night?
    3 or 4 months
  53. When does rem sleep decrease on a newborn?
    gradually decreases from 50% of the newborn sleep to about 25% in first year
  54. What is SIDS
    sudden and unexplainable death
  55. decrease risk of SIDS?
    sleep infants on their back
  56. The three dimensions of temperament?
    • Emotionality
    • activity
    • sociability
  57. What is emiotionality?
    is the strength of the infants emotional response to a situation
  58. What is activity?
    is the tempo and vigor of a childs physical activity
  59. What is sociability?
    the childs preference for being with other people
  60. Infants gain how much wight in the first year?
    triple there weight
  61. Malnutrition to a child can cause?
    childl to develp slow.
  62. Where are all the neurons stored in the brain?
    cerebral cortex
  63. what happens after 3 weeks after conception?
    the neural plate, a flat structure of cells forms
  64. What happens by 28wks of conception?
    the brain has all the neurons it will ever have
  65. What hemisphere are the emotions in?
  66. What hemisphere is your language at?
  67. Posture and Balance of baby?
    • Top heavy lose balance
    • learn new balance for each posture
  68. Stepping for infant?
    move legs as soon as 6-7 months but dont learn to walk till developmentally ready
  69. what is differentiation in coordinating skills?
    mastery of component skills.
  70. what is integration in coordinating skills?
    combining them in sequence to accomplish the task
  71. Fine motor skills at 4 months?
    infants clumsily reach for objects
  72. Fine motor skills by 5 months?
    coordinate movement of the two hands
  73. Fine motor skills by 2-3 years
    children can use zippers but not buttons
  74. Fine motor skills by 6yrs?
    tying shoes is a skill
  75. 9month old infant self concept?
    smille at face in the mirror but do not seem to recognize it as their own face
  76. 15-24months of infant self concept?
    see the image int he mirror and touch their own face.
  77. Age 2 infant and theory of mind?
    child understands that people have desire and these cause behavior
  78. age 3 infant and theory of mind?
    distinguish between the mental world and the physical world
  79. age 4 infant and theory of mind?
    understands that behaviour is based on beliefs and that the beliefs can be wrong
  80. What is a scheme?
    Sense of the world through categories of related events, objects, and knwledge
  81. What is assimilation?
    • new experiences fit into existing schemes.
    • required to benefit from experience
  82. what is accommodation?
    • when schemes have to be modified as a consequence of new experiences.
    • Allows for dealing with comletely new data or expirience
  83. What is equilibrium?
    exists when threre is a balance between assimilation and accomodation
  84. what is disequilibrium?
    exists when more accomodation is occuring than assimilation
  85. Period of sensorimotor development? what is it?
    • 0-2yrs
    • adapting and exploring enviroments
  86. What is egocentrism?
    the shild is unable to see the world from any viewpoing other than their own
  87. What is centration?
    child concentrate on only one dimension or aspect of a problem, ignoring other equally relevant aspects
  88. What is apperance is reality?
    innability to understand that apperance cen be misleading
  89. Attention?
    when sensory information receive additional cognitive processing
  90. Orienting response?
    Emotional and physical reactions to unfamiliar stimulus
  91. Habituation?
    a lessening of the reaction to a new stimulus
  92. What is classical conditioning>
    a neutral sitmulus becomes able to elicit a response that was previously caused by another simulus
  93. What is aperant conditioning?
    behaviors are affected by their consequences
  94. What is imitation?
    Learning from a older sibling
  95. when does cooing happen?
    at 2 months producing vowel sounds
  96. when does babbling happen?
    around 6 months
  97. what happens with speech at 8-12months?
    incorporate intonations, or change in pitch that are typical of the language they hear
Card Set:
HG 1

Human growth test 1
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