psci 330

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psci 330
2012-12-14 01:45:10
sri lanka nepal kashmir

final nepal sri lanka kashmir
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  1. king mehendra: royal coup d'etat
    succeeded his father in 1965. promulgated a modified form of parliamentary gov't through the 1959 constitution. the constitution provided a bicameral legislative body. it also provided for a cabinet responsible to both the parliament and king. in 1960 king mehendra dismissed the gov't on charges of failing to maintain law and order, being corrupt, and he arrested the prime minister as well as his cabinet collegaues.
  2. panchayat raj
    an attempt at a guided democracy; the real power remained with the king, who had the authority to amend the constitution and suspend it, abolition of all political parties.
  3. king birendra
    • Birendra agreed to become a constitutional monarch. He appointed an independent Constitution Recommendation Commission to represent the main opposition factions and to prepare a new constitution to accommodate their demands for political reform. The commission presented him with the draft of the proposed constitution on 10
    • September 1990. The new constitution would make Birendra head of state of a constitutional monarchy with a system of multiparty democracy. The draft constitution was approved by the Prime Minister K.P. Bhattarai and his cabinet and so on 9 November 1990 Birendra promulgated the new constitution transforming Nepal into a constitutional monarchy.
  4. Transit treaty with India
    The treaty allows free movement of people and goods between the two nations and a close relationship and collaboration on matters of defence and foreign affairs
  5. Peoples movement I (jan andolan)(1990)
    A multiparty movement in Nepal that brought an end to absolute monarchy and the beginning of constitutional democracy. It also eliminated the Panchayat system.
  6. Maoist insurgency / people's war
    The maoist demanded a republic, an all party gov't and an election to the constituent assembely to design a new constitution. During the insurgencey more than 13000 people were killed, thousands were injured.
  7. CPN(M)
    Communisty party of nepal / maoist. believed in radical communistic ideology.
  8. Royal massacre (2001)
    • occurred on 1 June 2001, at a house in the grounds of the Narayanhity Royal Palace, then the residence of the Nepalese monarchy. The government declared that the heir to the throne, Prince Dipendra, killed nine members of his family and himself. However, the majority of
    • citizens in Nepal condemned and disapproved the press conference issued, which referred to the Late King Dipendra as a mass murderer. The dead included King Birendra of Nepal and Queen Aiswarya. Prince dipendra became de jure King of Nepal upon his father's death and died whilst in a coma three days after the act. There are claims[who?] that Dipendra was already dead before being declared as the King. Gyanendra became king fter the massacre.
  9. Nepali Congress Party
    moderatly socialst reform orientated orginisation that seeks to liberalize nepali society along democratic lines.  it supported the multi party option in opposition to the panchayate system.
  10. CPN(UML)
    communist party of nepal (united marxist- lenoist) has a strong base hold on peasents and workers. it projects a progressive image by raising issues of inequality. in the 1990s it changed it stance and accepted a market economy and a parliamentry democracy.
  11. Royal coup (2005) by King Gyanendra
    dismissed the gov't. increase in militarization of politics. he repressed the maoist in parliamentry political policies. after the civil society movement moblized the king was forced to give up power.
  12. RNA (Royal Nepal Army)
    came about due the incapability of the state when dealiing with the maoist forces.
  13. People's movement II (2006)
    Against royal rule and girija was elected prime minister, had a coalition gov't with several political parties.
  14. Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) (2006)
    signed between the Government of Nepal and the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) on November 21, 2006 which formally ended the Nepalese Civil War that lasted for more than decade
  15. Constituent Aseembely
    2008 the election to the assembly was held. the most violent election in nepal history. alligations of intimaidation and violence have been brought against the maoist. the maosit emerged as the largest party, then nationalist parties. the assembly will become the most inclusive legislature to date.
  16. Ethnic federalism
    ethnic groups with strong political influence. the maoist relying on ethic groups voting, since they are the ones who vote the most.
  17. CHHE (caster hill hindu elite)
    caste hill hindu elite males monopolize poltical economic social and cultural power. chhe has dominated around 90% top possitions in prominent ngo's and human right groups. the chhe gets opportuinites for social mobility from central policies.
  18. Madhesi
    indigenous group of nepalese. created the ngp (nepal goodwill party) they are facing lack of citizenship certificates, domination of hill people in the governance of country, and discrimination of madhesi language, dress codes and values.
  19. Indigenous nationalites / janajati / tibeto-nepalese
    indigenous nationalities or the adibasi janajati, are generally the tibeto burman speaking groups. found in the mountains / hills / inner tarai. make up around 37% of the population. some still live in isolation, while other are found in urban communities. indigienous nationalities face cultural discrimination such as linguistic and religous discrimination. most of the groups face discrimination in accessing state and societal resources.
  20. Dalits
    traditional untouchable caste, make up about 14% of population.face severe social discrimination. undergo extreme treament of untouchabilitiy. which is denail to enter houses or temples. they have low literacy rate and very limited access to economic resources. they are the most excluded group for accessing political, social and economic resources.
  21. Sinhalese
    Indo Aryians, Bhuddist 74% of population
  22. Sinhala
    language of sinhalese
  23. Sri Lanka Tamils
    12-13% dravidian origin, hindu's, speak Tamil
  24. Indian Tamils
    brought over by the british as indentured servants make up 5.5% of the pop.
  25. Moors / Muslims
    brought over by pre-colonial trade by the indian ocean. make up 7% of pop. mostly live by the coast line.
  26. Civil war 1983-2009
    between the sinhalese and the tamils. when india first gained independence, they wanted sri lanka to adopt federalism. at first the sinhalese disagreed, when they finally agreed the tamils wanted more, their own soverign country. which resulted in 25 years of civil war.
  27. UNP
    United national party. in 1977 the unp election manifesto promised a new constitution and the creation of a presidential form of gov't. center right.
  28. SLFP
    sri lanka freedom party. dedicated to changing the structure of gov't to fit the sri lankan society more properly. against the british colonial ruler.
  29. Ethnic outbidding
    where majority party pushes out the minority simply because the have the numbers %. in sri lanka case its the sinhalese vs the tamils in which the tamils were ethnically outbid
  30. JVP
    Janatha vimukthi peramuma. leftist responsible for youth led insurrections aginst the gov't in the 70's. dedicated to nonviolent means to changing society. in 83 the party was accused of violence and banned. so they began a campaign of assassinating gov't supporters. over 800 people per month were killed. all party leaders were sentenced to jail. since then in the 1990s 3rd largest party in the country. theyve become more nationalist and adopted anti tamil possition.
  31. LTTE/Tamil Tigers
    Liberation tigers of tamil eelam. nationalist tamil group. responsible mostly for the violence between the tamil and sinhalese.
  32. Jaffna Peninsula
    Sri lanka military ceasing the last foothold of the tamil tigres. where the proceeded to bomb the area killing women children and men. no tamil tigers survived.
  33. Indo-Lankan Accord (july 1987)
    a call for a cease fire between the tigers and gov't the indian army acted as a peace keeping force. also established a system of provincall councils.
  34. President Rajapakse
    Mahinda Rajapaksa was chosen by Sri Lanka Freedom Party to contest with the UNP. formed a coalition gov't to win the election.
  35. Mahaweli development project
    • The Project is to provide Irrigation for agriculture and
    • water for domestic use, generate hydro-power for the whole range of agro-based industry in the Mahaweli areas and elsewhere, provide effective flood control and most importantly open up new land for agriculture development.
  36. Boxing Day Tsunami (dec 26 2004)
    an earthquake with a magnitude of 9.3 sent a shockwave across the indian ocean. smashed into the eastern and southern coast of sri lanka. the tsunami damaged or destroyed buildings within 5 kms of the sea. roads and bridges were washed away.
  37. Siachin Glacier
    Just north-east of the point where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.The glacier's region is the highest battleground on Earth, where India and Pakistan have fought intermittently since April 1984. Both countries maintain a permanent military presence in the region at a height of over 6,000 m (20,000 ft).
  38. Aksai Chin
    one of the two main disputed border areas between China and India.In 1962 China and India fought a brief war over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh, but in 1993 and 1996 the two countries signed agreements to respect the Line of Actual Control.
  39. Line of Control
    the effective border between India and People's Republic of China (PRC).
  40. Jammu & Kashmir
    north most state of india shares border with india, pakistan, and china.
  41. Ladakh
    region of Jammu and Kashmir, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.  It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in Jammu and Kashmir. gained importance from its strategic location at the crossroads of important trade routes.
  42. Azad Kashmir
    Pakistani-controlled Kashmir by the United Nation
  43. Hari Singh
    the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. after India gained independence from British rule, Jammu and Kashmir had the option to join either India or Pakistan or to remain independent. He originally maneuvered to maintain his independence by playing off India and Pakistan
  44. Accession
    the addition of property through legal / gov't means
  45. Shimla accord
    where the u.n. defined the line of control between india and pakistan over kashmir.
  46. JKLF
    Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front. a nationalist organiszation that seeks independence of Jammu and Kashmir state from both India and Pakistan.
  47. Plebiscite
    • a vote by which the people of an entire country or
    • district express an opinion for or against a proposal especially on a choice of government or ruler
  48. Sheikh abdullah
    leader of national conference kashmirs largest political party, urged for self rule of kashmir
  49. National conference
    a State political party in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Led at the time of Indian independence in 1947 by Sheikh Abdullah, it dominated electoral politics in the state for many decades. It has been led subsequently by the Sheikh's son Farooq Abdullah (1981–2002) and his son Omar Abdullah (2002–2009). Farooq Abdullah was again made the President of the party in 2009.
  50. Kargil operation 1999
    an armed conflict between India and Pakistan, beacause pakistani soliders and kashmir militants crossed the line of control, in the Kargil district of Kashmir.
  51. Lok Sabha attack 2001
    kashmir extemenist groups attacked the parliamentry hearing of the lok sabha (suicide bomb) in new delhi.
  52. Mumbai attack (nov 2008)
    were eleven coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's largest city, by Islamist terrorists who were trained in and came from Pakistan